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THE NEW 
GLUTTOlSf OR EPICURE 



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HORACE FLETCHER'S WORKS 



THE A. B.-Z. OF OUR OWN NU- 
TRITION. 450 pp. Just issued. 

THE NEW MENTICULTURE5 OR, 
The A-B-C of True Living. Forti- 
eth thousand. 310 pp. 

THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPI- 
CURE 5 OR, Economic Nutrition. 
344 PP* J^^^ issued. 

HAPPINESS AS found in Forethought 
minus Fearthought. Tenth thou- 
sand. 251 pp. 

THAT LAST WAIF} or. Social 
Quarantine. 270 pp. 



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THE 

NEW GLUTTON 



OR 



EPICURE 



BY 

HORACE FLETCHER 



NEW YORK 

FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANY 

1904 



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COPYRIGHT, 1^99, 1903 
BY HORACE FLETCHER 



Published November^ 1903 



vao 




THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 
CJLJf B.R.II>0£ • V.B.JA. 



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PREFACE 

The original " Glutton or Epicure " 
has been completely revised and much 
enlarged, including considerable new 
matter added in the form of testimony 
by competent investigators, which con- 
firms atie original claims of the book 
and supplements them with important 
suggestions. 

The " New Glutton or Epicure " is 
now issued as a companion volume to 
the "A.B.-Z. of Our Own Nutrition," in 
the " A. B. C. Series," and is intended to 
broaden the illustration of the necessity 
of dietetic economy in the pursuit of an 
easy way to successful living, in a man- 
ner calculated to appeal to a variety of 
readers ; and wherein it may suggest the 
scrappiness and extravagance of an in- 
temperate screed, the author joins in 



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VI PREFACE 

the criticism of the purists and offers in 
apology the excuse that so-called screeds 
sometimes attract attention where more 
sober statement fails to be heard. 

Especial attention is invited to the 
"Explanation of the A.B.C. Series," at 
the back of this volume, as showing the 
desirability of regard for environment in 
all its phases; and also to the section, 
"Tell-tale Excreta," on page 142, an 
evidence of right or faulty feeding per- 
sistently neglected heretofore, but of 
utmost importance in a broad study of 
the nutrition problem. 

The professional approval of Drs. Van 
Someren, Higgins, Kellogg, and DeWfey, 
representing wide differences of points 
of view and opportunity of application, 
are most valuable contributions to the 
subject. The confirmation of high 
physiological authority strengthens this 
professional endorsement. The testi- 
mony of lay colleagues given is equally 
valuable and comes from widely sepa- 
rated experiences, and from observers 



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PREFACE Vll 

whose evidence carries great weight 
The commandante of a battleship cruis- 
ing in foreign waters and representing 
the national descent of Luigi Comaro; 
a general manager of one of the largest 
insurance companies of the world; a 
cosmopolitan artist of American farm 
birth and French matrimonial choice 
and residence ; and a distinguished bon 
vivanty each with a world of experience, 
testifying in their own manner of expres- 
sion, is appreciated as most valuable 
assistance to the cause of economic 
dietetic reform. 

During the original experiments in 
Chicago, and in Dayton, Ohio, the origi- 
nator was much indebted to James H. 
Lacey, Esquire, of New Orleans, La., 
and Cedar Rapids, for helpful sugges- 
tions, which his early training as a 
pharmaceutical chemist rendered him 
able to give. 

There are also numerous altruistic, 
self-sacrificing women, who have been 
active colleagues of the author in testing 



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Vlil PREFACE 

the virtues of an economic nutrition, and 
who have gi'eatly assisted in making 
the economy an added new pleasure of 
life, instead of being a restraint or a de- 
privation. This is accomplished easily 
by a change of attitude towards the ques- 
tion, and in such reform women must 
have an imjiortant part to play. To' 
their kindly meant, but hygienically un- 
wise, aggressive hospitality, in begging 
friends to eat and drink more than they 
want, just to satisfy their own generous 
impulses, is due much of the milder 
gluttony that is prevalent 

Imposition upon the body of any 
excess of food or drink is one of the 
most dangerous and far-reaching of self- 
abuses; because whatever the body has" 
no need of at the moment must be gotten 
rid of at the expense of much valuable 
energy taken away from brain-service. 
Hence it is that when there is intestinal- 
constipation the energy-reserve is low- 
ered enormously, and even where there 
is no painful obstruction, the mere pas* 



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PREFACE ix 

sage of waste through some twenty to 
twenty-five feet of convoluted intestinal 
canal is a great tax upon available mental 
and physical power; and this disability 
is often imposed on innocent men by 
well-rtieaning women in the exercise of 
a too aggressive hospitality. 

Mention of constipation suggests an- 
other reference to one of the specially 
new features of this discussion, insisted 
upon by a truly economic and aesthetic 
nutrition, and herein lifted out of the 
depths of a morbid prejudice to testify 
to the necessity of care in the manner 
of taking food for the maintenance of 
a respectable self-respect. So firmly 
rooted is the fallacy that a daily gener- 
ous defecation is necessary to health 
that less frequent periodicity is looked 
upon with alarm, whereas a normally 
economic nutrition is proven by greater 
infrequency, accompanied by an entire 
absence of difficulty in defecating and by 
escape from the usual putridity due to 
the necessity of bacterial decomposition. 



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X PREFACE 

To illustrate the prevailing ignorance 
relative to this most important necessity 
of self-care, and also a traditional preju- 
dice, even among physicians, the follow- 
ing extract from a letter just received is 
given: "You ask me to define more 
exactly what I mean by constipation; 
this is not at all difficult; I mean skip- 
ping a day in having a call to stool. 
There was no trouble about it, and the 
quantity was not large, but when I men- 
tioned it to my doctor he advised me to 
stop chewing if it interfered with the 
regular daily stools. I must confess that 
I never felt so well as while I was chew- 
ing and sipping, instead of the hasty 
bolting and gulping which one is apt to 
do on thoughtless or busy occasions, but 
I don't think it is worth while for a chap 
to monkey with his hygienic department 
when he is employing a professional 
regularly to tell him the latest kink 
about health." To this surprising state 
of . • k the evidence of "professionals" 
like Van Someren, Kellogg, Higgins, 



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PREFACE XI 

and Dewey, as well as that of the great 
men of physiology who have spoken 
herein, and in the " A.B.-Z. of Our Own 
Nutrition," gives hopeful answer, but 
suggests a warning. 

The author has noticed that imme- 
diately folk begin to give attention to 
any new regime relative to diet, exercise, 
mental discipline, or whatever else, they 
begin to charge all unusual happenings 
to the change of habit, whereas before 
the same things were common but un- 
noticed. Even among men of scientific 
habit of thought, unduly constipated by 
stale conservatism, the old, old corpse of 
tradition, " The accumulated experience 
of the whole race must be correct," is 
revived and used in argument conten- 
tiously; but to this relapse into non- 
scientific reasoning comes the reply: 
" If the accumulated experience of the 
human race is evidence that crime and 
disease are natural, then disease and 
crime are good things and should not 
be discouraged." 



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3di I^REf Ace 

Thefe are nlany sorte 6f constipation, 
the worst of which are constipation of 
affection, of appreciation, of gratitude, 
and of all the constructive virtues which 
constitute true altruism. Let us avoid 
sinning in this regard! In pursuit of 
this thought the following is apropos : 

SPECIAL RECOGNITION 

The author wishes here, also, to ex- 
press gratitude to many who have not 
figured by name in the "A.B.-Z.," or 
elsewhere herein, but whose assistance, 
encouragement, criticism, and example 
have helped the cause along in one way 
or another. Of these naany friends a 
few are quickly recalled, but not neces- 
sarily in the order of their friendly ser- 
vice. To John H. Patterson, Esquire, of 
Dayton, Ohio ; Col. James F. O'Shaugh- 
nessy, of New York; Stewart Chisholm, 
Esquire, of Cleveland, Ohio; Fred E. 
Wadsworth, Esquire, of Detroit, Michi- 
gan ; and Henry C. Butcher, Esquire, of 
Philadelphia, are due much for encour- 



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PREFACE • ^i 

agement in pursuing the investigation 
.at critical moments of the ^struggle ; as 
well as to Hon. William J. Van Patten, 
of Burlington, Vermont, whose interest 
in the "A.B.C. Series " began with " Men- 
ticulture " and has continued unabated. 
In Dr. Swan M. Burnett, of Washing- 
ton, D. C, has been enjoyed a mentor 
with g^eat scientific discrimination and 
a sympathy in the refinements of art and 
sentiment, as expressed in Japanese aes- 
thetic civilisation, which has been ex- 
tremely encouraging and most inspiring 
in relation to the whole A.B.C. idea. 

From Gervais Kerr, Esquire, of Ven- 
ice, came one of the important sugges- 
tions incorporated in the A.B.-Z. Primer; 
and the young Venetian artist, E. C. 
Leon Boehm, rendered great service in 
studying habits of dietetics among the 
peoples of the Balkan Peninsular, in 
Turkey, along the Dalmatian Coast, and 
in Croatia* 

Prof. William James, of Harvard 
University, in his Gifford Lectures at 



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xiv * PREFACE 

the University of Edinburg, Scotland, 
published under the title of " The Va- 
rieties of Religious Experience," gave 
the practical reformatory effort of the 
"A.B.C Series" a great impetus by 
quoting approvingly from "Menticul- 
ture " and " Happiness." Coming from 
a teacher of philosophy and psychology, 
with a physiological training and an 
M.D. degree to support the approval, 
recognition is much appreciated; but, 
in addition to his published utterances, 
Dr. James has followed the psycho- 
physiological studies of the movement 
with interest, and has given much valued 
encouragement. 

This does not begin to complete the 
list of those to whom the author owes a 
debt of especial gratitude. The argus- 
eyed vigilance of the collectors and 
doctors of world-news, who mould public 
opinion in a great measure, has brought 
to the cause of dietetic reform estab- 
lished upon an aesthetic basis their 
kindly assistance, but, as usual, they 



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PREFACE XV 

prefer to remain incog. In this seclu- 
sion, however, Ralph D. Blumenfeld, 
Esquire, of London, and Roswell Martin 
Field, Esquire, of Chicago, cannot be in- 
cluded ; neither can Charles Jay Taylor, 
the originator of the Taylor-Maid girL 
James P. Reilly, Esquire, of New York, 
has lightened the labours of the investi- 
gator, and has strengthened his arm in 
many ways ; as have also Messrs. B. F. 
Stevens and Brown, of London^ not 
alone as most efficient agents, but as 
friends interested in the cause in hand. 
In the various books of the series oppor- 
tunity has occurred to express apprecia- 
tion of many sympathetic friendships, 
and in heart and memory they hold per- 
petual carnival. To Major Thomas E. 
Davis, of the New Orleans Picayune^ is 
due more than mere expression of grati- 
tude for excellent editorials on our sub- 
ject; and across the ocean. Sir Thomas 
Barlow, the private physician of King 
Edward VII, Dr. Leonard Huxley, Prot 
Alfred Marshall, of Cambridge Univer- 



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XVI PREFACE 

sity, and Reginald Barratt, Esquire, of 
London, have been most sympathetic 
and assistful. On both sides of the 
waters, William Dana Orcutt, Esquire, 
of The University Press, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, and Frederick A. Stokes, 
Esquire, of New York, have added friend- 
ship for the cause to much appreciated 
practical assistance. 

These and many others are preferred- 
creditors of gratitude, in addition to 
those whose mention is embodied else- 
where in the various books of the 
" Series." 

As attempted to be shown in the 
" A.B.-2m" under the caption " Bunching 
Hits and Personal Umpiring," this 
study of menticulture from the basis of 
economic and epicurean nutrition, in 
connection with a purified exterior and 
interior environment, is " team-work," as 
in football, cricket, or base-ball, and a 
laudable enthusiasm is an important 
feature of the game; hence, to conclude, 
this especial book, being a personal con- 



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PREFACE XVll 

fession, relaxation, effusion, expansion, 
as it were, of the practical benefits of 
economic body nutrition and tnenti- 
nutrition^ it seems the appropriate place 
to oflfer personal tribute outside and 
inside the intimate family relations, as 
freely as menticultural impulse may 
suggest. 

HORACE FLETCHER. 



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CONTENTS 



Page 

Preface i 

Special Recognition xii 

The New Glutton or Epicure .... i 

The Personal Case and Endorsement of 

Dr. Ernest Van Someren lo 

Experiments upon Human Nutrition. Note 
BY Sir Michael Foster, K.C.B., M. P., 

F.R.S i8 

Professor Chittenden's Report on the 

Author 25 

'Varsity-Crew Exercises under Dr. Wil- 
liam G. Anderson, of Yale University 

Gymnasium 32 

The Atwater-Benedict Calorimeter-Meas- 
urement 39 

MlLTTARY-SaENTIFIC CoOPERATION .... 42 

Dr. Kellogg's Appreciation 46 

Extracts from Dr. Edward Hooker Dewey 73 

An Agreeable Endurance Test .... 84 

Edward W. Redfield's Evidence .... 90 

General Observations loi 

Our Natural Guardians 106 



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XX CONTENTS 

Page 

Objections Considered 117 

The Mind Power- Plant 132 

Tell-Tale Excreta 142 

SaENTiFic Observation of a Literary Test- 
Subject 147 

What Sense? Taste 151 

Dr. Monks, Boston ; and Prof. Metchni- 

KOFF, Paris J — Elongated Intestines . 176 

Author's Personal Experience • . • « y88 

Some .Pertinent Queries ..••«. 195 
Important Confirmation: 

Commandants Cesare Agnelu , , • . 906 

Clarence F. Low, Esquire » , • . • 211 
A Five Years' Lay Experience: 

Baron Randolph NXtiu .,..,• 215 

Dr. Hubert Higgins* Case and Comment , 226 

Quarantine ••,.•••.«,• 236 

Give the Babies a Chance • « . . , 265 
" Munching Parties " and the " Chswing 

Fad" •• * ^ ••••»., • a7o 
Specimen Economic Dinner • . • . « 283 
Diet in the Yale Examwaticw of the Au- 
thor • 296 

Influence of Suggestion 300 

" Fletcherising : " complete Meaning . • 308 

Explanation of the A. B. C. Series . . 315 



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GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

It is now five years Since the first 
Section of thii crude little announce- 
ment of a great physiological discovery 
was published; and while the author 
has spent all the intervening years in 
Unremitting study of the subject of 
which it treats, with the heads of many 
of the great physiological laboratories Of 
the world assisting him with their best 
facilities and information, as to the 
•* reasons for things/* there is but small 
correction to make. 

This does not imply that the "last 
word " upon the subject has been herein 
stated, or that corrections may not be 
made as the study progresses, but it 
means, that as an honest description of 
an effort to get to understand the natural 



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2 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

requirements in our own nutrition, it is 
perhaps better put than the same author 
could now do; that is, if intended for 
the enlightenment of persons whose curi- 
osity has not yet been excited, or whose 
interest in their nutritive welfare is still 
young and inexperienced. 

With regard to the statement that 
"whatever has no taste is not nutri- 
tious," copied from a high educational 
authority, correction certainly must be 
made. Pure proteid has no perceptible 
taste as measured by taste-bud appre- 
ciation, any more than pure water has 
specific taste, and yet who may not say 
that "water tastes good" when one is 
really thirsty. Taste is a very subtle 
sense and is closely allied to feeling. 
Things are often said to taste good 
because they feel good in the mouth or 
to the throat as they descend to the 
stomach. 

Regarding also the advice to remove 
from the mouth refractory substance that 
the teeth and saliva cannot reduce to a 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 3 

condition to excite the Swallowing Im- 
pulse. There is theoretical and actual 
nutriment in the cottony fibre of tough 
lobster, or poor fish, or lean pork, and 
there is good reason to believe that a 
strong digestive apparatus can take care 
of such tough substance after a fashion 
and get nutriment out of it In the 
same way the hard, woody fibre of old 
nuts is the identical material that was 
rich in juicy oils and proteid when the 
nuts were fresh, but if swallowed in the 
toughened condition that age brings to 
nuts, it is but slowly reduced in the 
stomach and intestines and only at enor- 
mous expense. If putrifactive bacterial 
decomposition has to be resorted to to 
get rid of the stuff the process is then 
poisonous as well as difficult. 

According to physiological authority 
which we must, for the moment, accept, 
proteid is a vitally-necessary material 
and we cannot afford to waste it. Our 
life depends upon proteid to replace the 
waste of muscular tissue which occurs 



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4 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

with every movement, but when even 
good proteid is found by the mouth to 
be in a form that is too refractory for 
the teeth to handle, it is poor policy to 
send it on to the toothless stomach and 
intestines for the accomplishment of the 
reduction, llf the mouth cannot handle 
what its guardian senses don't like, it 
can spit it out and get rid of it immedi- 
ately; but if the stomach or intestines 
are afflicted with something that is 
harder than they can easily take care of, 
they have to call in the assistance of 
bacterial scavengers whose method is 
poisonous decomposition, and whose fee 
is putridity of odour penetrating the 
whole system and issuing at every pore, 
making Cologne water a large com- 
modity even in so-called Polite Society./ 
There are discernible in the mouth 
distinct senses of discrimination against 
substance that is undesirable for the 
system. If the mouth senses are per- 
mitted to express an opinion, their an- 
tipathy is easily read. It is far safer to 



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THE NEW OLirrrON OR EWCURE 5 

spit out what the natural impulse of 
swallowing hesitates at, or fails to suck 
up with avidity, than it is to force a 
Swallowing to get rid of it simply to 
satisfy a prudish "table manner" ol> 
jection. To avoid '* impolite " condem- 
tiation we really make "hogs of ourselves" 
" on the sly," and Vulgar slang alone is 
appropriate to express the shameful 
confession. 

As a matter of fact, if one faithfully 
practise mouth thoroughness in con- 
nection with all his food for a term of a 
few weeks, he will find that the appetite 
ceases to invite the sort of things that 
have to be spit out. The appetite grad- 
ually but unfailingly inclines to foods 
that are profitable all the way through, 
and in which there is little or no waste. 
This revelation alone shows a delicate 
usefulness of Appetite that has escaped 
students of the human senses. 

In the matter of the insalivation of 
liquids, evidence continues to accumulate 
to show that in the present prevalence 



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6 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

of liquid or soft foods lies the great dan- 
ger to the digestive economy of man. 
Through them, mouth work becomes 
neglected, and the tendency is to force 
the stomach and intestines to take on 
the work of the powerful mouth muscles 
and glands in addition to their own 
work, and in the straining that ensues 
trouble begins. 

There is now no doubt but that taste 
is evidence of a chemical process going 
on that should not be interrupted or 
transferred to the interior of the body. 
Tried upon milk for so long a period as 
seventeen days, during which nothing 
was taken but milk, not even water, 
thorough insalivation secured more than 
a twenty-five per cent economy in actual 
assimilation ; not alone with one subject, 
but with no less than five persons, living 
on milk from the same cow, and all of 
whose strict test history was recorded. 
It seems also to be the only way in 
which a practically odourless solid ex- 
creta is obtainable, and this is certainly 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE ^ 

evidence worth considering and a de- 
sideratum worth striving for. 

While it is an excellent thing to 
give thorough mouth attention to any- 
thing taken into the body, to solids 
alone, even if liquids are neglected, the 
best economic and cleanly results are 
only obtained when all substances, both 
liquid and solid, are either munched or 
tasted out of existence, as it were, and 
have been absorbed into a waiting and 
willing body; a body with ^xi earned 
appetite. 

With liquids one simply has to do as 
the wine-tasters and the tea-tasters do. 
Small sips are intaken and the liquid is 
tasted between the top of the tongue 
(the spoon end) and the roof of the 
mouth until all the taste is tasted out 
of it, and the Swallowing Impulse has 
claimed it. This is by no means a dis- 
agreeable task, and as soon as the un- 
naturally acquired habit of greed and 
impatience is conquered, the reward of 
following this natural requirement is 



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8 THE NEW GLUrrOM OR EPICURE 

very great and increases with practice. 
Five years of experience has taught the 
author that a really keen appreciation of 
taste and its delicacy of possible refine- 
ment is not known to persons of ordinary 
habits of life. The pleasure which comes 
with conformity with the natural require- 
ments is truly Epicurean and disregard 
of them is as surely gluttonous^ 

The author still claims discovery of 
a distinct physiological function which 
he first named " Nature's Food Filter." 
Van Someren preferred the name of a 
** New Reflex of Deglutition." It is, in 
fact, the •* Natural Swallowing Impulse," 
invited only by food mechanically and 
chemically prepared for passing on to 
the interior, call it by whatever name 
you like or may. 

At the time this little book was first 
published, the only note in favour of 
giving special attention to •* buccal di- 
gestion," that had been sounded, was 
the advice of Mr. Gladstone to his chil- 
dren, " Chew your food thirty-two times 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 9 

to each mouthful," or words to that 
effect. The " Masticate well " prescrip- 
tion of the physician when given at 
all, had meant little or nothing, to either 
the patient or to the prescriber, except 
that one must not swallow hard food 
whole. 

For two years after its publication 
little* heed was given to the suggestion 
because the author happened not to be 
a medical man, but, finally, the reserve 
of indifference was broken, first by Dr. 
Joseph Blumfeld, in a review of the 
book in the London Lancet^ and soon 
after by Dr. Ernest Van Someren of 
Venice, Italy, an English physician re- 
siding and practising in Venice. Dr. 
Van Someren's interest and experience 
are best stated in his awn wordsy as 
follows : 



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lO THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

THE PERSONAL "CASE" AND 
"ENDORSEMENT" 

OF 

DR. ERNEST VAN SOMEREN 

AN 

ENGLISH PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON, PRACTISING 
IN VENICE, ITALY 

"My dear Mr. Fletcher: 

"It would be Blmost apropos to send 
you, as an endorsement of your princi- 
ples, the dictum of the ragged and dirty 
tramp in the advertisement of Pear's 
soap. I would have to amend it slightly 
and say : * I used your {p^I^^**} three years 
ago ; since when I have used no other.' 
I say 'almost apropos^ advisedly, for, 
while the soap claims to keep the outer 
man clean, the practice of your princi- 
ples justly claims to keep the inner man 
sweet and clean, so lessening the need 
to cleanse the outer man ! 

"A well-known English surgeon (I 
think Sir Wm. Mitchell Banks) recom- 
mends physicians and surgeons to take 



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THE NEW GUJTTON OR EPICURE 1 1 

a leaf from the book of patent-medicine 
vendors, and make their patients testify 
to their successful treatment. I will 
take the hint and give you, as my 
* doctor,' a testimonial of how person- 
ally I am benefited by your advice. 

" Three years ago, when I first met 
you, though under thirty years of age, 
and myself a practising physician and 
surgeon, I was suffering from gout, 
and had been under the regime of a 
London specialist for the treatment of 
that malady. Though vigorously ad- 
hering to the prescribed diet, I suffered 
from time to time. My symptoms were 
typical — paroxysmal pain in my right 
great toe and in the last joints of both 
little fingers, the right one being tume- 
fied with the well-known * node.' From 
time to time, generally once a month, I 
suffered from incapacitating headaches. 
Frequent colds, boils on the neck and 
face, chronic eczema of the toes, and 
frequent acid dyspepsia were other 
and painful signs that the life I was 



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%2 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

leading was not a healthy one. Yet I 
was accounted a healthy person by my 
friends, and was, withal, athletic. I 
fenced an hour daily, took calisthenic 
exercises every morning, forcing myself 
to do them, and I rowed when I obtained 
leisure to dp so. In spite of this exer- 
cise and an inherent love of fresh air, 
which kept all the windows of my house 
open throughout the year, I suffered as 
above. Worse still, I was losing inter- 
est in life and in my work, 

" In one or two conversations you 
laid down your simple principles of 
economic nutrition. You told me that 
my food ought to be masticated thor- 
oughly, until taste was eliminated, and 
that (my) liquid nourishment, if taken, 
ought to be similarly treated. You also 
told me that, taking food in this way, I 
might, without fear of consequences, 
give free rein to my appetite. To shorten 
my story, I '11 say that in three months 
after the practice of these principles my 
symptom3 had disappeared. Not only 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 3 

had my interest in my life and work re- 
turned, but my whole point of view had 
changed, and I found a pleasure in both 
living and working that was a constant 
surprise to me- For this, my dear Mr. 
Fletcher, I can never repay you. My 
only desire has been and is, to try and 
do for others in my practice what you 
did for me. 

"Now I have since that time had 
occasional colds^ headaches, and gouty 
pains ; but, whereas formerly I could not 
explain their causes, I can now invari- 
ably trace them to carelessness in the 
buccal digestion of my food, and can 
soon shake them ofif. So much for my 
testimonial. Now for other matters. 

" I do not know what may be the ex- 
tent of the claims you are advancing in 
regard to the benefits accruing from the 
practice of your principles. If you, as 
you in justice may, claim even the widest 
benefits as surely following the practice 
of these principles, many will relegate 
these claims to the limbo where all such 



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14 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

'panaceas' are soon forgotten. They 
will err greatly if they do so. The seem- 
ingly simple procedure of insalivating 
one's food most carefully is not calcu- 
lated to impress people with the fact 
that great permanent benefit follows. 
The subtlety of the changes that occur 
is due to the greatly increased action of 
a vital process, /. ^., of the admixture with 
the food-stufifs of saliva, in such quanti- 
ties as to alter the chemical reaction of 
the initial stage of digestion. This ini- 
tial change causes a consequent change 
of all the processes following it, and a 
change also in the final products of the 
entire process of digestion; the great- 
est change being, perhaps, the elimi- 
nation of last-resort digestion by the 
intestinal flora (digestion by decomposi- 
tion caused by bacteria), and consequent 
elimination from the body, of the toxins 
they produce. The life of an organism 
has been defined as * the sum of all 
those inter-actions which take place be- 
tween the various cells constituting the 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 15 

organism and their several environ- 
ments/ (Harry Campbell.) The final 
products of digestion are absorbed into 
the blood stream, and go to form part 
of. the * several environments' of the 
cells. The individual cell, the various 
groups of specialised cells, such as the 
brain, nerves, muscles, bones, etc., in 
short, the whole organism is beneficially 
influenced and made more resistent to 
disease by the purity of a blood stream 
that no longer contains the toxins of 
bacterially digested food. 

"The further investigation of your 
discovery by those competent will, I am 
confident, result in such a simplification 
of the rules for a healthy life that the 
medical profession, at present forced 
by a lack of knowledge of the vital pro- 
cesses of nutrition to base their treat- 
ment on the veriest empiricism, will 
then be able to teach all and sundry 
how to live. At present, all we can do 
is to treat and perchance cure for a time 
certain symptoms, allowing the patient 



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l6 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EHCURE 

to return afterwards to a mode of life 
that is really responsible for his malady. 
• Disease is an abnormal mode of life.' 
(Harry Campbell.) The three factors 
in its causation are: 

" (a) Cell structure. 

" {6) Internal cell environment. 
' " (c) External body environment. 

" Heredity determines, to a very large 
extent, our cell structure, and conse- 
quently our body structure. 

"Sanitary science regulates our ex- 
ternal body environment as much as the 
artificial and noxious habits of so-called 
civilisation will allow. The mental and 
physical external body environments 
have also their effect on the organism. 

" Your discovery of simple rules for 
an Economic Nutrition will control the 
internal cell environment. In doing 
this, the predisposition to disease is 
materially affected. The internal cell 
environment being free from toxic 
material, and the cell itself better nour- 
ished, the cell's resistance to disease is 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 7 

increased, the possible source of disease 
being limited to the external body 
environment. 

"In concluding this endorsement I 
can promise, to each and all who may 
intelligently practise the principles of 
Thorough Buccal-Digestion, a complete 
knowledge of their body's food require- 
ments, or, as a patient of mine tersely 
put it, they will learn the way to * run 
their own machines.' 

" Yours ever, 
"Ernest van Someren." 

Dr. Van Someren and the author, 
assisted by Dr. Professor Leonardi, of 
Venice, as Consulting Physiological- 
Chemist, and several colleagues, pursued 
some experiments during the winter of 
i900-i90i;.and Dr. Van Someren read 
a paper on our work, entitled, "Was 
Luigi Cornaro Right ? ", before the rfteet- 
ing of the British Medical Association 
the following August. 

The paper is too long to reprint here 
but it will be found in full in another 



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1 8 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

volume, entitled, " The A.B.-Z. of Our 
Own Nutrition." 

The following " Note " by Dr. Pro- 
fessor, Sir Michael Foster, K.CB., M.P., 
F.R.S. etc., is a further link in the chain 
of development of appreciation of the 
need of serious attention to the science 
of human nutrition excited by this in- 
itiative. (Dr. Foster is the Permanent 
Honorary President of the International 
Congress of Physiologists.) 

EXPERIMENTS UPON HUMAN 
NUTRITION 

NOTE BY SIR MICHAEL FOSTER, K.C.B., 
M.P., F.R.S. 

"In 1 901 Dr. Ernest Van Someren 
submitted to the British Medical As- 
sociation, and afterwards to the Con- 
gress of Physiologists at Turin, an 
account of some experiments initiated 
by Mr. Horace Fletcher. These ex- 
periments went to show that the pro- 
cesses of bodily nutrition are very 



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THE NEW GUJTTON OR EPICURE 1 9 

profoundly aflfected by the preliminary 
treatment of the food-stuffs in the mouth 
and indicated that great advantages 
follow from the adoption of certain 
methods in eating. The essentials of 
these special methods, stated briefly and 
without regard to certain important 
theoretical considerations discussed by 
Dr. Van Someren, consist of a specially 
prolonged mastication which is neces- 
sarily associated with an insalivation of 
the food-stuffs much more thorough 
than is obtained with ordinary habits. 
1 " The results brought to light by the 
preliminary experimental trials went to 
show that such treatment of the food 
has a most important effect upon the 
economy of the body, involving in the 
first place a very notable reduction in 
the amount of food — and especially of 
proteid food — necessary to maintain 
complete efficiency. 

" In the second place this treatment 
produced, in the experience of its origi- 
nators, an increase in the subjective and 



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ttO THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

objective well-being of those who prac- 
tise it, and, as they believe, in their 
power of resistance to the inroads of dis- 
ease. These secondary effects may in- 
deed be almost assumed as a corollary 
of the first mentioned; because there 
can be little doubt that the ingestion of 
food — and perhaps especially of pro^ 
teid food — in excess of what is, under 
the best conditions, sufficient for main^ 
tenance and activity, can only be dele- 
terious to the organism, clogging it with 
waste products which may at times be 
of a directly toxic nature. 

" In the autumn of 1901 Mr. Fletcher 
and Dr. Van Someren came to Cam^ 
bridge with the intention of having the 
matter more closely inquired into, with 
the assistance of physiological experts. 
The matter evoked considerable interest 
in Cambridge, and observations were 
made not only upon those more imme- 
diately interested, but upon other in- 
dividuals, some of whom were themselves 
medical men and trained observers. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 21 

' " Certain facts were established by 
these observations, which, however, are 
to be looked upon as still of a prelimi- 
nary nature. The adoption of the habit 
of thorough insalivation of the food was 
found in a consensus of opiniott to have 
an immediate and very striking effect up- 
on appetite, making this more discrimin- 
ating, and leading to the choice of a 
simple dietary and in particular reducing 
the craving for flesh food. The appetite, 
too, is beyond all question fully satisfied 
with a dietary considerably less in amount 
4han with ordinary habits is demanded. 

V^ "Numerical data were obtained in 
several cases, but it is not proposed to 
deal with these in detail here, as they 
need the supplementary study which 
will be shortly referred to. 

" In two individuals who pushed the 
method to its limits it was found that com* 
plete bodily efficiency was maintained 
for some weeks upon a dietary which had 
a total energy value of less than one-half 
of that usually taken, and comprised little 



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22 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

more than one-third of the proteid con- 
sumed by the average man. 

" It may be doubted if continued 
efficiency could be maintained with such 
low values as these, and very prolonged 
observations would be necessary to es- 
tablish the facts. But all subjects of the 
experiments who applied the principles 
intelligently agreed in finding a very 
marked reduction in their needs, and 
experienced an increase in their sense of 
well-being and an increase in their work- 
ing powers, 

" One fact fully confirmed by the Cam- 
bridge observations consists in the effect 
of the special habits described upon the 
waste products of the bowel. These 
are greatly reduced in amount, as might 
be expected ; but they are also markedly 
changed in character, becoming odour- 
less and inoffensive, and assuming a 
condition which suggests that the in- 
testine is in a healthier and more aseptic 
condition than is the case under ordinary 
circumstances. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 23 

" Although the experiments hitherto 
made are, as already stated, only prelim- 
inary in nature and limited in scope, 
they establish beyond all question that 
a full and careful study of the matter is 
urgently called for. 

" For this fuller study the Cambridge 
laboratories do not possess at present 
either the necessary equipment or the 
funds to provide it. For the detailed 
study of the physical efficiency of a man 
under varying conditions, elaborate and 
expensive apparatus is required; and 
the advantages claimed for the special 
treatment of the food just discussed can 
only be fully tested by prolonged and 
laborious experiments calling for a con- 
siderable staff of workers. 

" It is of great importance that the 
mind of the lay public should be dis- 
abused of the idea that medical science 
is possessed of final information con- 
cerning questions of nutrition. This is 
very far indeed from being the case. 
Human nutrition involves highly com- 



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t4 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

plex factors, and the scientific basis for 
our knowledge of the subject is but 
small ; where questions of diet are con- 
cerned, medicsJ teaching, no less than 
popular practice, is to a great extent 
based upon empiricism, 

" But the scientific and social impor- 
tance of the question is clearly immense, 
and it is greatly to be desired that its 
study should be encouraged, 

"M. Foster. 

"April 26th, 1902." 

The interest excited in Professor 
Foster was coincident with that es- 
poused by Dr. Professor Henry Picker- 
ing Bowditch, Professor of Physiology 
of Harvard Medical School, and Dean 
of American Physiologists. Under the 
aegis of such encouragement the later 
developments are not at all surprising. 
In order to extend and verify the find- 
ings of Dr. F. Gowland Hopkins, of Cam- 
bridge University, England, ^ stated in 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 25 

the preceeding note by Professor Foster, 
Professor Russell H. Chittenden, Pres- 
ident of the American Physiological 
Society, Director of the Sheffield Scien- 
tific School of Yale University, and one 
of the leading chemico-physiological 
authorities of the world, as measured by 
accepted research work, volunteered to 
submit the author to further test. The 
report of this test is too long for repro- 
duction here. It was first published in 
the Popular Science Monthly of June 
1903, but will be found in full in the 
"A. B.-Z." just referred to. The special 
reference to the author's case and the 
quoted report of Dr. William G. Ander- 
son, Director of the Yale Gymnasium 
which tells the story of efiiciency, was 
as follows: 

Extract from an article by Professor ^piSsell H. 
Chittenden in Popular Science Monthly^ June, 1903. 

" The writer has had in his laboratory 
for several months past a gentleman 
(Horace Fletcher) who has for some five 



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26 THE NEW GUJTTON OR EPICURE 

years, in pursuit of a study of the sub- 
ject of human nutrition, practised a cer- 
tain degree of abstinence in the taking 
of food and attained important economy 
with, as he believes, great gain in bodily 
and mental vigour and with marked 
improvement in his general health. 
Under his new method of living he 
finds himself possessed of a peculiar 
fitness for work of all kinds and with 
freedom from the ordinary fatigue in- 
cidental to extra physical exertion. In 
using the word abstinence possibly a 
wrong impression is given, for the habits 
of life now followed have resulted in 
the disappearance of the ordinary crav- 
ing for food. In other words, the 
gentleman in question fully satisfies his 
appetite, but no longer desires the 
amount of food consumed by most 
individuals. 

"For a period of thirteen days, in 
January, he was under observation in 
the writer's laboratory, his excretions 
being analysed daily with a view to ascer- 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 2^ 

taining the exact amount of proteid con- 
sumed. The results showed that the 
average daily amount of proteid meta- 
bolised was 41.25 grams, the body-weight 
(165 pounds) remaining practically 
constant. Especially noteworthy also 
was the very complete utilisation of the 
proteid food during this period of 
observation. It will be observed here 
that the daily amount of proteid food 
taken was less than one half that of the 
minimum Voit standard, and it should 
also be mentioned that this apparent 
deficiency in proteid food was not made 
good by any large consumption of fats 
or carbohydrates. Further, there was 
no restriction in diet. On the contrary, 
there was perfect freedom of choice, and 
the instructions given were to follow 
his usual dietetic habits. Analysis of 
the excretions showed an output of 
nitrogen equal to the breaking down 
of 41.25 grams of proteid per day, as 
an average, the extremes being 33.06 
grams and 47.05 grams of proteid. 



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28 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

"In February, a more thorough series 
of observations was made, involving a 
careful analysis of the daily diet, to- 
gether with analysis of the excreta, so 
that not alone the proteid consumption 
might be ascertained, but likewise the 
total intake of fats and carbohydrates. 
The diet consumed was quite simple, 
and consisted merely of a prepared 
cereal food, milk and maple sugar. 
This diet was taken twice a day for 
seven days, and was selected by the 
subject as giving sufficient variety for 
his needs and quite in accord with his 
taste. No attempt was made to con- 
form to any given standard of quantity, 
but the subject took each day such 
amounts of the above foods as his ap- 
petite craved. Each portion taken, how- 
ever, was carefully weighed in the 
laboratory, the chemical composition of 
the food determined, and the fuel value 
calculated by the usual methods. 

" The following table gives the daily 
intake of proteids, fats and carbohydrates 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 29 

for six days, together with the calculated 
fuel value, and also the nitrogen in- 
take, together with the nitrogen output 
through the ei^creta. Many other data 
were obtained showing diminished ex- 
cretion of uric acid, ethereal sulphates, 
phosphoric acid, etc., but they need not 
be discussed here* 





lntnVi» 


OstimtafNitroKea. 


Pro- 
tdds. 


Fats. 


Car- 

bohy. 


Calor- 
ies. 


gen. 


Uifae. 


Faeces. 


TotaL 


Feb. 3 
3 

4 

1 

7 


Grams. 

48.0 
50.0 


Grams. 
aS-3 

38.1 
4a 6 

^■•| 
39-8 


Grams. 

283.0 
269.0 
267.0 
307.3 


1747 
1711 
1737 
1852 


Grams. 
5.02 
7.50 

IZ 

7.49 
7*44 


Grams. 

527 
6.24 

5-53 

7.50 


C^ams. 
0.18 
o.8i« 
0.81* 
o.8i« 
a8i« 
O.I7 


Crams. 
5-4S 
6.34 

7.67 


^''j 


44-9 


38a> 


253.0 


1606 


7.19 


6.30 


a6o 


6.90 



" The main things to be noted in 
these results are, first, that the total 
daily consumption of proteid amounted 
on an average to only 45 grams, and 
that the fat and carbohydrate were 
taken in quantities only sufficient to 
bring the total fuel value of the daily 

* Average of the four days. 



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30 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

food up to a little more than i,6oo large 
calories. If, however, we eliminate the 
first day, when for some reason the sub- 
ject took an unusually small amount of 
food, these figures are increased some- 
what, but they are ridiculously low 
compared with the ordinarily accepted 
dietary standards. When we recall that 
the Voit standard demands at least 
ii8 grams of proteid and a total fuel 
value of 3,cxx) large calories daily, we 
appreciate at once the full significance 
of the above figures. But it may be 
asked, was this diet at all adequate for 
the needs of the body — sufficient for a 
man weighing 165 pounds? In reply, 
it may be said that the appetite was 
satisfied and that the subject had full 
freedom to take more food if he so de- 
sired. To give a physiological answer, 
it may be said that the body-weight re- 
mained practically constant throughout 
the seven days' period, and further, it 
will be observed by comparing the fig- 
ures of the table that the nitrogen of 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 3 1 

the intake and the total nitrogen of the 
output were not far apart. In other 
words, there was a close approach to 
what the physiologist calls nitrogenous 
equilibrium. In fact, it will be noted 
that on several days the nitrogen out- 
put was slightly less than the nitrogen 
taken in. We are, therefore, apparently 
justified in saying that the above diet, 
simple though it was in variety, and in 
quantity far below the usually accepted 
requirement, was quite adequate for the 
needs of the body. In this connection 
it may be asked, what were the needs of 
the body during this seven days' period ? 
This is obviously a very important 
point. Can a man on such a diet, even 
though it suffices to keep up body- 
weight and apparently also physiological 
equilibrium, do work to any extent? 
Will there be under such condition a 
proper degree of fitness for physical 
work of any kind ? In order to ascer- 
tain this point, the subject was invited 
to do physical \York at the Yale Uni- 



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32 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

versrty Gymnasium and placed under 
the guidance of the director of the 
gymnasium, Dr. William G. Anderson. 
The results of the observations there 
made are here given, taken verbatim 
from Dr. Anderson's report to the 
writer. 

"*On the 4thv 5th, 6th and 7th of 
February, 1903, I gave to Mr. Horace 
Fletcher the same kind of exercises we 
give to the Varsity Crew. They are 
drastic and fatiguing and cannot be 
done by beginners without soreness and 
pain resulting. The exercises he was 
asked to take were of a character to tax 
the heart and lungs as well as to try the 
muscles of the limbs and trunk. I 
should not give these exercises to Fresh- 
men on account of their severity. 

" ' Mr. Fletcher has taken these move- 
ments with an ease that is unlooked for. 
He gives evidence of no soreness or lanie- 
ness and the large groups of muscles 
respond the second day without evidence 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 33 

of being poisoned by carbon dioxide. 
There is no evidence of distress after 
or during the endurance test, i.e.^ the 
long run. The heart is fast but regular. 
It comes back to its normal beat quicker 
than does the heart of other men of his 
weight and age. 

** * The case is unusual and I am sur- 
prised that Mr. Fletcher can do the 
work of trained athletes and not give 
marked evidences of over exertion. As 
I am in almost constant training I have 
gone over the same exercises and in 
about the same way and hav« given 
the results for a standard of comparison. 
(The figures are not given here.) 

"* My conclusion given in condensed 
form is this. Mr. Fletcher performs 
this work with greater ease and with 
fewer noticeable bad results than any 
man of his age and condition I have 
ever worked with.' 

•* To appreciate the full significance of 
tiiis report, it must be remembered that 
3 



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34 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

Mr. Fletcher had for several months past 
taken practically no exercise other than 
that involved in daily walks about town. 

" In view of the strenuous work im- 
posed during the above four days, it is 
quite evident that the body had need of 
a certain amount of nutritive material. 
Yet the work was done without appar- 
ently drawing upon any reserve the 
body may have possessed. The diet, 
small though it was, and with only half 
the accepted requirement in fuel value, 
still sufficed to furnish the requisite 
energy. The work was accomplished 
with perfect ease, without strain, without 
the usual resultant lameness, without tax- 
ing the heart or lungs, and without loss 
of body-weight. In other words, in Mr. 
Fletcher's case at least, the bodymachin- 
ery was kept in perfect fitness without 
the consumption of any such quantities 
of fuel as has generally been considered 
necessary. 

" Just here it may be instructive to 
observe that the food consumed by Mr. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 35 

Fletcher during this seven days' period 
— and which has been shown to be 
entirely adequate for his bodily needs 
during strenuous activity — cost eleven 
cents daily, thus making the total cost 
for the seven days seventy-seven cents I 
If we contrast this figure with the 
amounts generally paid for average 
nourishment for a like period of time, 
there is certainly food for serious 
thought. Mr. Fletcher avers that he 
has followed his present plan of living for 
nearly five years ; he usually takes two 
meals a day ; has been led to a strong 
liking for sugar and carbohydrates in 
general and away from a meat diet ; is 
always in perfect health, and is con- 
stantly in a condition of fitness for 
work. He practises thorough mastica^ 
tion, with more complete insalivation of 
the food (liquid as well as solid) than 
is usual, thereby insuring more com- 
plete and ready digestion and a more 
thorough utilisation of the nutritive 
portions of the food. 



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36 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

" In view of these results, are we not 
justified in asking ourselves whether 
we have yet attained a clear compre- 
hension of the real requirements of the 
body in the matter of daily nutriment ? 
Whether we fully comprehend the best 
and most economical method of main- 
taining the body in a state of physi- 
ological fitness? The case of Mr. 
Fletcher just described; the results 
noted in connection with certain Asiatic 
peoples ; the fruitarians and ^///arians 
in our own country recently studied by 
Professor Jaffa, of the University of 
California; all suggest the possibility 
of much greater physiological economy 
than we as a race are wont to practise. 
If these are merely exceptional cases, 
we need to know it, but if, on the other 
hand, it is possible for mankind in 
general to maintain proper nutritive 
conditions on dietary standards far be- 
low those now accepted as necessary, 
it is time for us to ascertain that fact. 
For, if our standards are now unneces- 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 37 

sarily high, then surely we are not only 
practising an uneconomical method of 
sustaining life, but we are subjecting 
ourselves to conditions the reverse of 
physiological, and which must of neces- 
sity be inimical to our well being. The 
possibility of more scientific knowledge 
of the natural requirements of a healthy 
nutrition is made brighter by the fact 
that the economic results noted in con- 
nection with our metabolism examina^- 
tion of Mr. Fletcher is confirmatory of 
similar results obtained under the direc- 
tion and scrutiny of Sir Michael Foster 
at the University of Cambridge, England, 
during the autumn and winter of last 
year ; and by Dr. Ernest Van Someren, 
Mr. Fletcher's collaborateur, in Venice, 
on subjects of various ages and of both 
sexes, some account of which has already 
been presented to the British Medical 
Association and to the International 
Congress of Physiologists at its last 
meeting at Turin, Italy. At the same 
time emphasis must be laid upon the 



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38 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

fact that no definite and positive con- 
clusions can be arrived at except as the 
result of careful experiments and obser- 
vations on many individuals covering 
long periods of time. This, however, 
the writer hopes to do in the very near 
future, with the cooperation of a corps 
of interested observers. 

" The problem is far-reaching. It in- 
volves not alone the individual, but 
society as a whole, for beyond the indi- 
vidual lies the broader field of the com- 
munity, and what proves helpful for the 
one will eventually react for the better- 
ment of society and for the improvement 
of mankind in general," 

This test of work was accomplished 
on food of the nitrogen value of less 
than 7 grams daily, whereas the text- 
books declare that from i6 to 25 grams 
of nitrogen are necessary to human ex- 
istence. The heat value of the food 
consumed during the test, and which 
was like in amount to what had been 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 39 

habitually taken by the author for about 
five years previously (less than 1600 large 
Calories), was only half the amount set 
down by the majority of the presently- 
accepted authorities as necessary to run 
the body of a man of the author's weight 
and activity. The heat-economy-show- 
ing was verified a week or two later in 
a 32-hour calorimeter measurement in 
the apparatus of Professors Atwater and 
Benedict at Middle town, Conn. 

Evidence of even more significant 
value has accumulated outside the field 
of the author's own experiments and 
tests. After more than a year of careful 
trial among some thousands of patients 
and among some hundreds of earnest 
employees. Dr. James H. ICellogg, of 
the great Battle Creek Sanitarium, has 
adopted the suggestions contained in 
this book as the first requirement of the 
treatment at the Sanitarium. In like 
manner. Dr. Edward Hooker Dewey, 
the sturdy advocate of dietary-economy 
for the past thirty years, author of the 



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4b THE NEW GLUTTON OR fePlCURE 

" NoBreakfast " regimen, and various 
books upon the subject of auto-nutrition 
and dietary-rest, bent his attention upon 
the effect of thorough buccal digestion 
prescribed after a period of rest from out- 
side feeding, and here follows his appre- 
fciation as extracted from personal letters. 
Before quoting from the high appre- 
ciation of Dr. Dewey and Dr. Kellogg 
it may be well to state that the author 
stands simply for a test-subject-factor in 
a commonweal natural inquiry and no 
praise of the subject attaches to the 
person of the author. Whatever the 
author iis, in the enjoyment of health and 
strength, is the result of natural causes 
which have developed during his study of 
the natural requirements in our nutrition. 
Please forget the personal element and 
consider that what is the author's gain 
in efficiency as related, is the possible 
possession of the reader as well, and 
whatever work or test the author per- 
forms is done as much for the reader 
as for the author himrseli 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 41 

The several extracts from the letters 
of Drs. Kellogg and Dewey; the state- 
ment relative to an endurance-test made 
on the author's fiftieth birthday, on a 
bicycle in France, volunteered by Ed- 
ward W. Redfield, last year's Medal-of- 
Honorist at the Pennsylvania Academy 
of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, as well as 
medalist of last Exposition Universale, 
Paris ; are appreciated and accepted for 
the subject they endorse ; and, as before 
stated, are entirely impersonal. Instead 
of using dumb animals for test subjects 
and getting their unwilling, and some- 
times abnormally deranged, partici- 
pation, the author takes pleasure in 
submitting to the tests himself, and is 
thus able to state "symptoms" and 
"feelings" more accurately, perhaps, 
than any dog could do. Were vivi- 
section necessary the author would will- 
ingly submit to that inconvenience also ; 
but thanks to the skill of a Pawlow, and 
the ingenuity of a Bowditch coupled 
with the patience and persistence of a 



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42 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

Cannon, as fully related in the " A,B.- 
Z.," we not only get the economic re- 
sults but we are able to know and even 
see some of the " reasons for things " as 
well. 

Interesting testimony and comment 
relative to the present study will be 
found at the end of the volume in com- 
munications from Commandante Cesare 
Agnelli, Clarence F. Low, Esquire, Baron 
Randolph Natili, and one of unusual sug- 
gestiveness, as evidence of the need of 
further study of nutrition, from Dr. Hu- 
bert Higgins of Cambridge, England, 

MILITARY-SCIENTIFIC COOPERATION 

With the evidence and interest just 
outlined, it was not difficult for the 
author to enlist the cooperation of 
Surgeon-General O'Reilly of the United 
Army and the endorsement of General 
Leonard Wood for larger investigation 
of the subject. These officers, both of 
them surgeons and medical doctors, had 
supported the militant-martyr-scientist, 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 43 

Dr. Major Walter Reed, in his great 
sanitary accomplishment; had fought 
yellow fever to a finish together in Cuba ; 
had traced its spread to a specific cause ; 
and were thereby encouraged to tackle 
even so common and powerful enemies 
as Indigestion and Mal-Assimilation. 

The investigation now in progress at 
Yale University, under the direction of 
Professor Chittenden and under the 
fostering auspices of the Trustees of 
the Bache Fund, which is administered 
by the National Academy of Sciences, 
and other contributed support, is a Mil- 
itant-Scientific campaign which will not 
cease until we know as much about hu- 
man nutrition, at least, as we know about 
the nutrition of our domestic animals. 

In this little book, however, is an ac- 
count of the first distress and war cry, 
(to appropriate an expression of the Sal- 
vation Army), and while the workers in 
Science; may take a considerable time 
to make observations and investigate 
the " reasons for things," the underlying 



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44 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

claims herein stated will, it is believed, 
ultimately be established as fundamental 
facts of both Hygiene and Physiology, 

The psychic factor in digestion is 
even more important than originally 
claimed by the author, and fully ac- 
counts for the strength attained by the 
Christian Science movement 

In the " A.B.-Z. of Our Own Nutri- 
tion " are reprinted, for recent scientific 
reports, in addition to the papers of Dr. 
Van Someren and Professor Chitten- 
den, before mentioned, articles and lect- 
ures by Dr. Professor Pawlow, the great 
Russian physiologist and one of the 
Board of Assessors in the International 
Nutrition Investigation, described in 
the " A.B.-Z.," (reprinted from the fine 
English Translation by Dr. W. H. 
Thompson, of Trinity College, Dublin ; 
English publishers, Griffin & Co. ; Amer- 
ican publishers, Lippincott & Co.), on 
the mental influence over the salivary, 
gastric, and intestinal secretions. Also, 
nearly an hundred pages of most virile^ 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 45 

readable, and important "Observations 
on Mastication," by Dr. Harry Camp- 
bell, M.D,, F.R.C.P., of the North- 
west London Hospital; reprinted by 
courteous permission of the author and 
of the editor of the Lancet Also, a 
description of the digestive process in 
animals as seen by aid of the Rontgen, 
or X-Ray; a most readable account of 
the infinite patience and application of 
Dr. W. B. Cannon, of the Harvard Medi- 
cal School, devoted to learning the 
** reasons for things " done in the closed 
and secret laboratory of the stomach 
and intestines. 

The above is a necessary advertise- 
ment of another volume in the A.B.C- 
Life Series ; because the details of this 
particular attempt to reduce the philoso- 
phy of everyniay life to profitable simples 
is linked-up in several volumes devel- 
oped in the course of study of the sub- 
ject for location of the germinal causes. 
** Menticulture " was the first of the 
series and relates to the individual. 



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46 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

** Happiness " came next and located 
the chief enemy of happiness in Fear- 
thought, the unprofitable element of fore- 
thought. "That Last Waif" treated 
the question as related to the Social 
Whole, children in particular, and recom- 
mended Social Quarantine; by exten- 
sion of infant education to the extreme 
of allowing no child to escape educa- 
tional care. This present treatise deals 
with the first requirement of such infan- 
tile care and education, right feeding. 

DR. KELLOGG'S APPRECIATION 

The great Battle Creek Sanitarium, 
under the inspiration and direction of 
Dr. J. H. Kellogg, has grown to enor- 
mous proportions in thirty-seven years. 
It began with one patient in a two- 
storey frame house in a country village, 
and has been largely influential in creat- 
ing the present proud distinction of 
Battle Creek, Michigan, with its mil- 
lions upon millions of invested indus- 
trial capital. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 47 

The " cure " is based upon the estab- 
lishment in the patient of right nutrii- 
•tion, right functioning of the bodily 
organs and secretions, and thereby asr 
sisting Nature to perform the cure 1131 
a natural manner. Pure foods and other 
conditions of right nutrition have beea 
the particular study of the institutioa 
staff, and large and finely furnished 
chemical and bacteriological laborato- 
ries have been installed for the study of 
nutrition in a scientific manner. 

The Battle Creek Sanitarium is a 
purely humanitarian and philanthropic 
institution. By perpetual charter, all 
of the profits of the concern in all of 
its ramifications are dedicated to the ex- 
tension of the American Medical Mis- 
sionary Cause, and there have been 
already established more than sixty 
branches of the parent institution in 
different parts of the world, principally 
in or near the chief cities of America, 
and all are occupied with saving and 
regenerating the physical body of the 



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48 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

Sick as a foundation for possible moral 
awakening and spiritual cultivation. 

The work done by these humanita- 
rian institutions is most practical, and 
the best evidence of the practicality is 
their growth. Patients are charged what 
they can conveniently pay, but none who 
need are refused attention. Branches 
are made self-supporting as soon as pos- 
sible, but are first nurtured by the parent 
sanitarium. There are some hundreds 
of physicians, nurses, and other at- 
taches of the different institutions, and 
these are enthusiasts in the humanita- 
rian work, taking as wages only what 
they need for most economical support, 
^*a mere pittance," and deriving their 
chief compensation from satisfaction 
gained in the service. All in all, it is 
an expression of inspirational altruism 
worthy of the example of the Good 
Samaritan and a practical demonstra- 
tion of the Sermon on the Mount. 

The special attention of the writer 
was called to the work of the Battle 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 49 

Creek Sanitarium organisation by an 
American banker, Edwin C. Nichols, 
Esquire, in London, at the time of the 
last Coronation. The banker was con- 
versant with the growth and methods 
of the Sanitarium, and had seen the 
result of its missionary and sanitary 
work. He exacted a promise from the 
writer to visit Battle Creek on his first 
opportunity, and Mr. Nichols has our 
everlasting gratitude for leading us to 
a more intimate acquaintance with so 
splendid an illustration of humanitarian 
possibilities when properly directed. It 
is not alone the great Sanitarium and 
its hospitals, and clinics, and shelters, 
and refuges, and baths, and reading- 
rooms, that are doing the greatest pos- 
sible good work, in demonstrating their 
effective Christianity; but it is the pri- 
vate waif-family of Dr. and Mrs. Kellogg 
which shows what neglected children 
are capable of when given a chance, and 
which appeals to the author especially 
as giving support to his ideal of a pos- 
4 



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50 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

sible effective Social Quarantine as pre- 
sented in his book, " That Last Waif." 
Twenty-four neglected and sick chil- 
dren of unfortunate parents have been 
rescued from an almost hopeless condi- 
tion, and have been adopted into the best 
of surroundings and culture, all promis- 
ing to become splendid wealth-produc- 
tive citizens and ornaments to society. 
For more than a year Dr. Kellogg 
and his staff of earnest workers have 
been testing the suggestions offered in 
"Glutton or Epicure," and in the treatise 
of Dr. Van Someren, and appreciation 
of these suggestions and the work that 
has since been done to stimulate interest 
in the question in high scientific circles 
will be found in some extracts from Dr. 
Kellogg's letters which the author has 
received pgg Hiiog|oa 4o print herewith. 

, Nov. 26, 1902. 

'of November 
20th. Nl^faji^ |W)i^^^y^much for your 




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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 51 

appreciative words. Your visit here 
was a great inspiration to all of us. It 
is not often we find a man who enters 
into the things which we love so heart- 
ily as you have done. The thing that 
interested us especially was the fact that 
you are the founder of a new and wonder- 
ful movement, which is bound to do far 
more for the advancement of the princi- 
ples for which we are working than all 
that we have done or anything we can 
do. I shall await with great interest 
the development of your work and shall 
expect to receive great light from your 
efforts. We are all in training to find 
our reflexes, and are expecting to make 
a great deal out of this." 

" Battle Creek, Mich., Dec 21, 1902. 
" My dear Friend : 

" I have received the beautiful book 
which you sent me, * That Last Waif, or 
Social Quarantine.' It is a charming 
volume. I devoured it eagerly, and I 
find myself in the position of an eager 



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52 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

disciple sitting at the feet of a master. 
Your ideas of social regeneration strike 
deeper than those of any other modern 
author, and I shall be glad to cooperate 
with you in any way possible in promul- 
gating these principles. You have made 
your book talk in a most impressive 
way. From cover to cover it is simply 
admirable and must do a world of good. 
I shall write a little notice of it for my 
journal, Good Health. 

" Again thanking you for this inter- 
esting volume, I remain, 

" Most sincerely and respectfully 
yours, 

"J. H. Kellogg." 

" Battle Creek, Mich., Jan. 22, 1903. 
"Dear FiIiend: 

"I have shamefully neglected you. 
I want to assure you how much I ap- 
preciate your encouraging notes. I 
read them to my colleagues, and they 
were so much afifected that tears came 
into their eyes. I assure you we feel 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 53 

that you are indeed a brother to us 
in our work, and that God has provi- 
dentially sent you to be a friend to 
us and to the principles which we 
represent. 

" I had a letter from Dr. Haig a few 
days ago in which he mentioned you 
and your work, and said he was much 
interested in it. Dr. Haig, you know, 
has done a great deal in calling atten- 
tion to uric acid in meats and other 
foods. His work has not all been ac- 
cepted by great laboratory men, but 
Dr. Hall, of Owen's Medical College in 
Manchester, has recently reinforced his 
results. I have at different times re- 
peated his experiments with interesting 
results. 

"I assure you we shall be glad to 
receive any suggestions from any scien- 
tific authority who may visit us, and if 
there is any part of our work which can 
be improved, we shall be glad to put it 
there as soon as our attention is called 
to it. 



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54 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

"Again thanking you for your kindly 
interest in our work, I remain, 
" Most sincerely yours, 

"J. H. Kellogg." 

" Battle Creek, Mich., Feb. 22, 1903. 
"My dear Friend: 

"I have yours of January 29th. I 
am much interested in what you write 
about your demonstration at New Haven. 
I want to give the widest publicity pos- 
sible to your work. I find great good 
in it. I am talking to my patients 
continually about it. I know from my 
experience that you are right. For 
many years I have required my patients 
to give special attention to chewing, and 
have made it a written prescription for 
each patient to chew a saucerful of dry 
granose flakes at the beginning of each 
meal. I have seen great good from this 
method. 

" With kindest regards, I remain, as 
ever, 

" Most sincerely yours, 

"J. H. Kellogg." 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 55 

« Battle Creek, Mich., March 16, 1903. 
"Dear Friend: 

" I am exceedingly interested in the 
facts which you communicate, especially 
Dr. Anderson's report. It is quite re- 
markable. I am verifying the same 
ideas in my own personal experience. 
I am confident you have discovered a 
great and important principle and I shall 
watch with interest future developments. 
I am going to get our students interested 
in it. If you feel disposed to do so, I 
shall be glad to have you make out a 
little line of experiments which will tally 
with the experiments which you have 
been conducting, so the results may be 
compared. 

" I have in hand a translation of Cor- 
naro's work which I have been thinking 
of publishing. It occurred to me that 
perhaps you would be able to write a 
little chapter for this work, or an intro- 
duction. I am going to get it out in 
nice shape, and I trust it may be the 
means pf doing good in inclining those 



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56 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE ' 

who read it toward a simpler life. I am 
greatly interested in the ideas which you 
present in your various books. 

" I hope you will have a safe journey 
to Italy and back. 
" I remain, as ever, 
" Very sincerely and respectfully 
yours, 

"J. H. Kellogg." 

"Battle Creek, Mich., March 22, 1903. 
^My dear Mr. Fletcher: 

" I have yours of March 19th. I 
thank you very much for promising to 
write an introduction for the edition of 
Luigi Cornaro's life. You are just the 
man to do it. I propose to get the book 
out in neat, tasty shape. Shall be glad 
to have suggestions from you on this 
point. The manager of a large denomi- 
national publishing house in Chicago is 
interested and wants to publish it with 
us. He has promised to help about the 
artistic features. 

"As regards our medical college, I 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 57 

ought to have told you that we are in- 
corporated in the State of Illinois. Our 
medical school is really legally located 
in Chicago. We always have one or 
more classes down there for dissection, 
clinical work, and doing dispensary and 
missionary work in the city. Our school 
is officially recognised. Our diplomas 
are recognised in this country and in 
most foreign countries; otir diplomas 
are recognised, in fact, in all countries 
which recognise American diplomas. 
The work done in our school is recog- 
nised by the best schools. Jefferson 
accepts students from our third year 
into their fourth, the graduating year, 
without examination. Kings College in 
Kingston, Canada, does the same ; also 
Trinity College in Toronto, and other 
leading schools in this country. Our 
College is a member of the American 
Medical Association along with Bellevue, 
University of Pennsylvania, University 
of Michigan, Rush Medical College, and 
other leading schools. We have placed 



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58 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

our standard high so that no one could 
object to the reform features of our 
work on account of incompetency. Our 
students are admitted to practice in 
New York, having passed the exami- 
nations of the State Board. Our best 
reason for believing that our diplomas 
are recognised everywhere is because 
of students from the College having 
passed the examinations in nearly every 
State. One of our students recently 
graduated from the University of Dub- 
lin after having spent a year there, as 
they require five years instead of four 
years as with us. 

"Your experiments are surpassingly 
interesting. Your performance with Dr. 
Anderson was phenomenal. I confess 
you are a physiological puzzle. If chew- 
ing accomplishes these wonderful things 
for you, it is certainly worth the while. 
I am training myself from day to day 
to masticate my food more and more 
thoroughly and I confess there is greater 
good in it than I ever imagined. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 59 

" I am sending you a little box of foods 
that I think you will like, especially the 
protose roast, the gluten biscuit, and 
the chocolates. 

" I would like to get hold of a list of 
your books ; I want to put them into the 
hands of our students to read. Kindly 
give me a list of the names and the 
publishers and I will esteem it a favour. 

" I might have said further in refer- 
ence to our College that it is listed by the 
New York Board of Regents as well as 
by the Illinois State Board of Health. 
We are going to make considerable 
improvement in our school the next 
year. We are trying to put up a new 
building. We need $100,000 very much, 
as our work has no endowment and it 
requires very great sacrifice and most 
strenuous effort to keep it going. Our 
teachers work for a mere pittance and 
our students are compelled to save and 
economise in every way to get through. 
Nearly all of them have to pay their 
way in work of some sort. 



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6o THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

" By the way, I am taking liberty to 
send you with this, copies of some little 
booklets which I have just gotten out 
in reference to our work. 
" I am, as ever, 

" Your friend, 
'']. H. Kellogg." 

« Battle Creek, Mich., June 24, 1903. 
«« My dear Friend: 

" I have your kind note of June 21st. 
I am happy to be remembered by you 
tho I have neglected writing you. I 
was afraid my letter would not find you 
on your journeys. 

" We are chewing hard out here at 
Battle Creek, chewing more every day. 
We are continually thinking and talk- 
ing of you and the wonderful reform 
you set going. We have gotten up a 
little * chewing song ' which we sing to 
the patients. . It is only doggerel but 
it helps to keep the idea before our 
people. We dedicated it to you and I 
am going to send you a copy of it as 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE $J 

soon 03 the printers get it ready. If you 
feel too much disgraced I will take 
your name off. 

" That little book on 'Cornaro ' is not 
out yet. We have been waiting for 
the introduction from you. We can 
wait as much longer as is necessary, 
as you are the man to furnish thi? 
introduction. 

"I hope you will come West some 
time this summer so you can drop in 
and see us in our new building. We 
are not quite in perfect running order 
yet, but we shall soon be fixed in good 
shape and will be delighted to have 
you with us. You have helped us 
greatly in calling our attention to the 
great importance of chewing. We had 
known it for a long time but had not 
practised it. You demonstrated the 
thing in such a graphic way that the 
whole world is constrained to listen. 
" Thanking you for your kind note, 
** I remain, very sincerely yours, 

"J. H. Kellogg.** 



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62 THE NEW GLXTTTON OR EPICURE 

"Battle Creek, Mich., July 23, 1903. 
" My dear Mr. Fletcher : 

" I have your kind favour of July 14. 
You are doing me altogether too much 
honour. I am only a plodding, humble 
doctor, and have never had any oppor- 
tunity to do any great thing, because of 
the limits of my abilities, and because I 
have not the opportunity to devote my 
energies to any one special thing ; but 
have so many things to do that I can do 
nothing very well. 

" I remember Dr. Krauss very well. 
He has for some years been assistant 
to Prof. Winternitz, the Professor of 
Nerve Diseases in the Medical Depart- 
ment of the Royal and Imperial Uni- 
versity of Austria. He seemed a very 
able physician and a delightful gentle- 
man. I was very glad to meet him. 

" I have already sent you a copy of a 
little booklet entitled ' The Building of 
a Temple of Health.' 

"We will be most happy to have a 
visit from you. I would like to know 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 63 

about what time you are coming, and I 
will endeavour to be here. I have a call 
to give an address at Chautauqua, N. Y., 
early in August, and if I do not know 
when you will be here, I might possibly 
be away, which I should consider a 
great misfortune. 

"We have nothing here, I am sure, 
which will be new to scientific men, 
and I apprehend that they will have 
a very different opinion of our work 
than you have. 

" I have a little book which I think I 
have not sent you, entided * The Living 
Temple.' I will send a copy to you; 
also a copy of the 'Chewing Song,' 
which is now out. It is nothing but a 
cheap thing, intended only for my own 
little folks ; but it got out, and several 
people wanted it, so I have allowed it 
to be put in print. The purpose was, 
of course, simply to impress the chew- 
ing idea. Of course you are well, as 
you are apt to be well by chewing 
well. 



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64 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

" By the way, I met a disciple of 
yours a day or two ago. He was 
Senator Burrows, from Kalamazoo. He 
called with his wife and some other 
ladies, and Mr. Rose, the chief clerk of 
the U. S. Senate, to make us a little 
visit. I had a very delightful chat with 
them. On remarking to the Senator 
that he did not look any older than 
when I saw him last, but seemed to 
be very well, he told me he was in 
perfect health, and he expected to live 
forever. He had recently gotten hold 
of something that was doing him so 
much good that he believed he should 
never be sick. I begged to know his 
secret, and found it was chewing. I 
asked him how he discovered it, and he 
told me he had learned it from your 
delightful book. You are certainly pro- 
moting the most important hygienic re- 
form which has been brought forward in 
modern times. When you visit us again, 
you will see in our dining-room of our 
new building more Horace Fletcher dis- 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EHCURE 65 

Ciples, and more hard chewers than you 
ever saw together in one place in your 
life before. Our doctors and helpers are 
taking hold of it with great enthusiasm^ 
and I trust we shall be able to render 
you some good service in promoting 
this good idea, for which you certainly 
deserve the gratitude of the whole 
world. 

'* Hoping to have the pleasure of a 
visit from you soon, I remain, as ever, 

"Yours most sincerely and respect- 
fully, 

"J. H. Kellogg." 

*< Battle Creeic, Mich., Aug. 13, 1903* 
•*Dear Friend: 

** Your kind notes of August 7th and 
nth received. I have asked the Pub- 
lishing Department to open an account 
with you and send you everything you 
order promptly at publisher's discount 

" * The Living Temple ' is published 
for the benefit of the Sanitarium. Every- 
thing received from it goes toward pay- 



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66 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

ing for the new building. The cost of 
printing, paper, and binding is paid for 
by contributions, so all the money re- 
ceived goes toward the building fund 
for the Sanitarium. I hope by this and 
other means to get the building paid for 
before I die. 

" I think your chewing reform is of 
more importance to the world than you 
realise. You must have a great fund of 
good cheer with you ; doubtless because 
you chew I I told our patients here that 
I had heard from you that King Edward 
was chewing. It interested and amused 
them very greatly. The idea of * munch- 
ing parties ' is a good one. 
" As ever, 

" Your friend, 
"J. H. Kellogg." 

"Battle Creek, Mich., August 21, 1903. 
*• Dear Mr. Fletcher : 

" I have yours of August 20th with 
the list of persons to whom you desire 
to have 'The Living Temple' sent. The 



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, THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 67 

books are already sent together with a 
little note calling attention to them. 

" Your continued courtesies are put- 
ting us under obligations which we can 
never repay. 

" There are a lot of devils of different 
sorts to be cast out, and I am sure the 
dyspeptic devil is about the worst and 
the meanest of them all. 

"A quartette sang the 'Chewing 
Song ' just before my lecture in the par- 
lour last evening. The great parlour was 
filled to its utmost capacity. The people 
cheered heartily, not at the singing nor 
the song, but the sentiment. I took 
occasion to tell them I thought Mr. 
Horace Fletcher, in inaugurating the 
chewing reform, had done more to help 
suffering humanity than any other man 
of the present generation, and that I felt 
very much mortified that we had neg- 
lected this important matter to such 
an extent here that you had to come to 
the Sanitarium and be a missionary of 
good health and urge this important 



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68 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

matter upon our attention. I feel that 
we are all greatly indebted to you, and 
seem to be getting continually more and 
more into your debt, and I do not know 
any way to discharge the obligation; 
but if any accident should ever happen 
to you so you get ill, it will certainly be 
a delight to us to have the opportunity 
to minister to you if you will permit us 
so to do. 

" I am glad you have postponed your 
visit until October, as by that time we 
shall have many things in better work- 
ing order, and our medical class will 
be here. I want to have our medical 
students meet you. 

" I told Mr. Nichols the other day you 
were coming to visit us. He was greatly 
delighted to hear this. He feels as I do 
that the work which you have inaugu- 
rated is the most important movement 
which has been started in modern times. 

" I remain, as ever, 

" Fraternally yours, 

"J. H. Kellogg.'* 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 6^ 

"Battle CrE£R, Mich., Sept. 30, 1903. 
"Dear Friend: 

" I have your kind note of the 23d 
inst. I am sure that one of tny letters 
to you has been lost I wrote promptly 
telling you that you were at liberty to 
use anything I have written you respect- 
ing your work. 

" I am more and more enthusiastic re- 
specting the value of thorough chewing. 
1 have read with great interest Dr. Harry 
Campbell's articles, and am republishing 
in Modern Medicine a large part of what 
he has written. 

"I have been thinking whether I 
might dare ask permission from you to 
publish your article * What Sense ' as a 
tract. Possibly it is already printed in 
that way. I would like to circulate it 
widely among my patients, and our nurses 
and doctors. I am doing my best to get 
them all to chewing, and have had great 
benefit myself from thorough mastication. 

" Our Medical School has just begun 
again, and I have one nice class of six- 



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70 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

teen students who are going to devote 
themselves to the study of applied phys- 
iology, and all of them will experiment 
on the effects of thorough mastication 
in relation to the quantity of food ; also 
in relation to the quantity of proteids. 
If you would like the details of the re- 
sults of the experiments, I will give them 
to you later. 

" By the way, if you have any written 
or printed outline of data which you 
think it desirable to collect, I will be 
glad to have it as a help to us in re- 
searches of this sort. We have prepared 
our laboratory to do almost anything 
that needs to be done, and we have a 
whole lot of enthusiastic young men and 
women who will enter into this thing 
with great zeal, and we will be glad to 
cooperate with you thoroughly as I feel 
that you have introduced a line of re- 
search and investigation which is of 
immense importance. I have read with 
great interest Prof. Chittenden's article 
in the Popular Science Monthly, and 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 7 1 

I can but feel that you are a heaven-sent 
missionary to the world in this matter of 
diet reform. 

" I remain, 

" As ever your friend, 

"J. H. Kellogg." 

" P. S. — I have for many years given 
a good deal of attention to the matter of 
mastication. It has been my regular 
prescription for all my patients for many 
years to eat at the beginning of each meal 
some Granose Flakes. The purpose of 
this was to secure increased activity of 
the salivary glands, and to encourage 
the habit of mastication. I have found 
immense benefit from this practice. 

" I appreciate exceedingly all the good 
things you are sending me. What a de- 
lightful time you must have had in the 
Adirondacksl I have never had such 
a pleasure in my life, as I have had my 
nose continually on the grindstone at 
work since I was ten years of age, with 
no vacations at all. It is a remarkable 



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J2 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURfi 

spectacle that these great men, thes6 
learned professors and scientists, and 
army medical men, should be coopera- 
ting so enthusiastically with a layman to 
learn the true philosophy of life ; but it 
has always been so. The great discov- 
eries have not been made by great scien- 
tists and great doctors, but by men 
whose minds were above the bias of 
prescribed education, and who were able 
to learn from the great book of nature, 
which is the book of God. 

** When you come again I hope you 
will have time to stay with us a little 
while so we can have some good chats. 
I would like to sit down and go into the 
heart of things with you, when I think 
we should find our ideas running very 
close together. We shall expect to see 
you next month. I have to be away for 
a few days sometime during the month, 
so I hope you will let me know a little 
while before you come about what time 
to expect you. 

"J. H. K." 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 73 



EXTRACTS FROM DR. EDWARD 
HOOKER DEWEY 

(At the first writing Dr. Dewey had had the method 
of treating food commented on in his letters under 
trial for three years ; it having been conununicated to 
him by the author among the first.) 

"Meadville, Penn., Nov. 17th, 1901. 
** My dear Mr. Fletcher : 

" In the line of dietary form you have 
done better work than the entire medi- 
cal profession has done from the dawn 
of History. This matter of eating the 
way you preach and practise, serves 
wonderfully to save the wastp o^ energy, 
which is a direct robbery of brain 
power, in the stomach. It also saves 
an undue waste of food, the burden 
of over-weight, and above all things, 
the waste of disease. You should en- 
large * Glutton or Epicure ' and push 
it. My allusion to this little book in 
my last book has brought me many 
letters of inquiry, and I always com- 



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74 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

mend it as a work of the highest prac- 
tical importance. 

" I have received the article of Dr. 
Van Someren, and I wish I had scores 
of them to send to my patients. I have 
read it with the greatest interest, and 
shall keep it most of the time in the 
mail pouches. 

" In these latter times I am becoming 
more and more impressed with the 
results of over-food even with the 
well, until now I feel that the pussy 
belly is a matter so clearly attribu- 
table to gluttony as to be a cause of 
shame, at least, in the physiological 
sense. . . . 

" I hope you will feel it a duty to en- 
large and expand the usefulness of ' Glut- 
ton or Epicure.' The people are ripe in 
this country for just such a book. ... I 
feel that you are doing the most impor- 
tant work in physiological investigation 
of any living man, and we in this coun- 
try, especially, need all your new material 
as an addition to the book. . 4 ." 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 75 

(Two years later; after five years* test.) 

July 20th, 1903. 

"What you have done to unfold 
physiologic mastication means more for 
human weal than all the mere medical 
prescribers have given the world from 
Adam to the present moment. I have 
tested the method you advise with the 
ailing, as you could not have had so 
large an opportunity to do. I have 
been having the care of fasters for 
the past twenty-six years, and now all 
of them, when they return to their 
healthy appetite and feeding, have to 
* Fletcherise ' every morsel. Just now 
a man has ended a thirty-two day fast 
under my care, and has begun taking 
food again, with an appetite and a relish 
that his memory does not recall having 
enjoyed before. He swallows nothing 
that is not reduced to thin liquid. 
Only occasional abstinence from food 
for a time and such attention to masti- 
cation, makes health possible with the 
majority of people, tempted by quanti- 



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76 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

ties of soft and rich foods. No other 
one has taught so wisely how available 
brain power can be saved from wastage 
in the stomach, as have you — the value 
is beyond all estimate, 

" It has been given to me to become a 
teacher among those who have neither 
time nor means to cultivate health; 
mine to teach them how to get all the 
health possible, without the use of any 
of the health arts. In dispensing the 
new physiology of dietary rest I have 
had need of all the time possible, with 
none left for the experiments of science, 
hence I have done little or nothing to 
speak of in the experiment way sug- 
gested in your letters. 

" I am very glad to hear from you 
again, and shall be pleased to have you 
indicate the number of the Popular 
Science Monthly^ in which Professor 
Chittenden's article on your work at 
Yale appeared, so that I can send for 
4t. Think of this, my dear Mr, Fletcher, 
what a conservation there is of energy, 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE ^^ 

brain-power-reserve and even soul-force, 
in saving it from waste in worrying 
about and literally pushing quantities 
of avoidable rubbish through thirty feet 
of the alimentary canal; and this is just 
what is accomplished by your method 
of making the jaw muscles and salivary 
glands do all their whole duty in the 
matter of daily food." 

September 3d, 1903. 

" I send you a whole cargo of thanks 
for the fine book you sent me (Dr. J. H. 
Kellogg s 'Living Temple') and the 
* Chewing Song' (taught and used as 
a reminder at the Battle Creek Sani- 
tarium). The latter is the most impor- 
tant kind of a song ever voiced during 
the age of man. I have been trying to 
get time to write you some physiology, 
but am very busy with my correspon- 
dence with distant patients* Will do 
so soon," 

September 12th, 1903. 

•• . . . What I would like best to 
express to you is my appreciation of 



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78 THE NEW GUJTTON OR EPICURE 

the exceeding good you have done me 
in teaching how to save energy avail- 
able for brain-power by ' Fletcherising ' 
all foods before swallowing. In the 
case of dropsy, I have previously written 
about, I am confident the sole means 
of success that is being accomplished 
now, is due to the ' Fletcherising ' of all 
morsels. The patient spends never less 
than an hour and a half over his one 
meal a day. At the end of his former 
fast, with his weight of 250 lbs. cut 
down to 125 lbs., he was permitted to 
take six meals a day, and in a few weeks 
he was nearly as bad as ever, with his 
weight raised to 180 lbs. Under my 
care, and after only a seventeen-days' fast 
(dietary rest), he was reduced again to 
122^ lbs. There has since been a 
month of feeding one meal a day by 
your method, with weight restored to 
156 lbs. and no hint of returning dropsy 
— and you are guilty of this, for no other 
than the practice of thorough mastication 
has been capable of such curing work. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 79 

** Your experiences, as detailed in the 
Popular Science Monthly (June, 1903), 
were read with absorbing interest. There 
is no more important work for man to 
do than that which you are doing. I 
have not the patience for details, and 
since the • No Breakfast Plan ' has be- 
come somewhat known to the world, I 
have been too busy; but the more I 
study, and study you in particular, the 
more I see and realise what of crimes 
and of evil desires are due to over- 
food — to bolting food. 

"Now for something new I In an 
article on ' The Mystery of Migrations * 
in the Saturday Evening Post of August 
2 2d (1903), it is given out that all mi- 
grating birds let their last meal get thor- 
oughly digested, that they may start on 
their long flight with empty stomachs ; 
that no power may be diverted to the 
digesting machinery of their stomach. 
What is the significance of this in re- 
lation to the *No Breakfast Plan?' 
It is the true physiology of Instinct ! " 



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8o THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

(In response to a request for permission to quote 
his appreciation.) 

September 17th, 1903. 

"Dear Mr. Fletcher: 

" You may freely state my views of 

the value of the work you have done 

for humanity better than I have done. 

Know this ; I am not able to adequately 

express my own appreciation of it, as 

revealed in the rooms of the ailing 

throughout several years of experience, 

by any language at my command. Here 

is something formal, if you like to use 

it 

" Yours with admiration and gratitude, 

" E. H. Dewey." 

•* P. S. The matter of thorough mas- 
tication, as unfolded and insisted on by 
Horace Fletcher, is the greatest prac- 
tical physiology that a dyspeptic, glut- 
tonous world ever has received. The 
discovery of its importance of mouth- 
work, in saving the strain of over-work 
in the stomach and in the intestines, 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 8 1 

will do more to prevent disease than all 
other precautions. This is all the more 
wonderful when it is considered that 
Mr. Fletcher is a layman.^ 

**Here is the physiology involved, 

^ Dr. Dewey's expression of surprise at the laj 
incompetence of the author is interesting in view of 
the fact that he himself is responsible for the untitled, 
unprofessional deficiency at which he wonders. When 
the author met Dr. Dewey, in Dayton, Ohio, where he 
was conducting some experiments, in 1898, he was 
then on the point of taking up a complete medical 
Course with a post-graduate course of research-physi- 
ology in order to give character to his authority in ad« 
vancing the cause of his amateurish discovery, as 
related in this book. There were the time, the 
energy, the means and the inclination of a student's 
craving inviting him to take the whole course to M.D. 
degree ; but Dr. Dewey advised " no." " Don't you 
do it," said he, " you are doing good work as it is ; 
you will be more or less infiuenced by existing stand- 
ards which may be errors, and you may get switched 
o£E the natural track. Study your physiology afUf 
you have made your observations." Dr. Dewey has 
forgotten his advice of five years ago, but it was 
followed. Living almost constantly in an open-air 
and open-mind atmosphere of research in alimentary 
physiology ever since, thanks to Dr. Dewey's sugges- 
tion, the author has escaped the abnormal physiology 
which medicine deals with, and he is more and more 
thankful for the escape as time reveab that open-air 
and open-mindedness are good, both for the soul and 
for bodily comfort and health. 
.6 



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82 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

as I find the effect of it in the sick-room. 
Theoretically, digestion may take place 
far down in the digestive tract, but it is 
practically found that when this possi- 
bility is resorted to, by reason of neglect 
of the earlier buccal or gastric digestion, 
trouble soon happens, and we doctors 
are called in to try to effect cures by 
medicine or otherwise. For every one 
horse-power of work, as it were, that is 
slighted in the mouth, it requires per- 
haps ten horse-power of energy to repair 
the neglect further on, and all of this 
waste of energy is charged against the 
brain-power, pleasure-power reserve on 
storage. 

" As I read the account of Mr. Fletch- 
er's showing of heat-economy, reported 
by Professor Chittenden in his Popular 
Science Monthly article, and which was 
verified in the calorimeter measurement 
at Middletown, I see at once, from my 
own observations, that half the heat 
commonly used in the human engine is 
occupied in forcing the unnecessary 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 83 

waste through thirty feet of intestinal 
folds and convolutions." 

The author feels very grateful to Dr. 
Dewey, not alone for his encouragement, 
but for the service he has rendered 
humanity by his heroic stand for tem- 
perance in feeding. He is one of the 
sturdy Esculapian Luthers, whose cry 
of reform comes from the impulse of an 
inborn Christian Altruism. 

When it becomes generally known, 
as it some day will be, that over-eating 
and wrong-eating are the prime causes 
of temptation to intemperance in drink- 
ing, the measure of Dr. Dewey's service 
to the Temperance Cause will be better 
appreciated. 



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S4 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 



AN AGREEABLE ENDURANCE 
TEST 

After this volume was published in 
1898, the field of experiment was 
changed from the United States to 
Europe. The physical exercise and 
mental recreation of the summer of 
1899 consisted partly of bicycling. We 
landed in Holland, toured Holland, 
Belgium, and Northern France, and 
reached Paris in the course of about 
two months and with upwards of five 
hundred miles' wheeling. For another 
month we bicycled leisurely around 
Paris and added two or three hundred 
miles to our cyclometer record. During 
the month of July the author further 
rode some seven hundred miles in and 
about the Forest of Fontainebleau. 

The idea of an endurance-test was 
suggested to the author by the ease 
with which he accomplished a century 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 85 

of miles on the Fourth oi July, 1899. 
Being in Paris, and wishing to celebrate 
a most beautiful summer day and our 
National Holiday at the same time, an 
early start was made and the beauty of 
the day, the charm of the golden har- 
vest fields lying between Paris and the 
Forest of Fontainebleau, and the noble 
forest itself, led us on and on until the 
Cyclometer showed a distance, for the 
forenoon run, of slightly more than 
eighty kilometers (fifty miles) in a 
straight-away line from hotel and home 
in Paris. Two years before, fifty miles 
on bicycle, even when accustomed to 
riding daily during the craze for bicy- 
cling, which was then at its zenith, if 
done in one day, would have completely 
" done the author up " and would have 
called for several days of rest for recu- 
peration. In the present case, however, 
no fatigue had yet been experienced and 
the day was still young. 

The forest studio-home of friend Red- 
field, the Philadelphia landscapist, was 



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86 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

found on the edge of the forest border- 
ing the Seine at Brolles, and we went 
for a spin together and finally returned 
awheel to Paris. To make a "century 
run" in a day had always seemed to the 
author a feat for athletes and experts 
only, and when he found that he had 
made it without any inconvenience and 
was in no way painfully conscious of it 
next day, the ambition to see what really 
could be done was born. It would give 
practical measure of the improvement 
due to an economical nutrition. It was 
known what the newly ambitious con- 
testant for a record could not do two 
years before, but it was now uncertain 
what he might be able to do under changed 
condition of health even with two years' 
additional handicap of age; besides, it 
happened to be the half-century year of 
the author's life and a good time to jot 
down a record of a new start in life. 

Reference to " economical nutrition '* 
in connection with a full measure of 
recreation needs some explanation. To 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 87 

be economical means to most persons 
privation of pleasure. It is true that the 
economic standard attained by Luigi 
Cornaro had been maintained with ease 
by the author since the beginning of 
his experiments in the summer of 1898. 
This was not accomplished by trying 
to emulate Cornaro's example, but was 
reached by a method of taking food, and 
developed in the course of a special 
study of the economic natural require- 
ments. The author ate just what his 
appetite called for ^ as nearly as circum- 
stances of supply permitted, he ate all 
that his appetite would allow ; enjoyed 
a gustatory pleasure that had never been 
equalled under old habits of taking food, 
and was a distinct epicurean gainer 
by the economy learned and practised. 
But — and in this " but" lies the secret — 
the solid food had been munched ap- 
preciatively until it was liquefied and 
a strong Swallowing Impulse compelled 
its deglutition. The sapid and nutri- 
tious liquids were tasted as the wine 



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88 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

tasters taste wine, as tea tasters taste 
tea, and as all experts test, or " Get 
the Good" out of, anything. Instead 
of being drunk down in a flood like 
water, which has no taste and no rea- 
son to stay in the region of taste, 
delicious country milk was sipped and 
tasted with the end of the tongue, 
where the best taste-buds are, until it 
disappeared by natural absorption. In 
this way the milk was fully enjoyed, 
largely assimilated, and, as the result of 
almost subsisting on bread and milk 
alone, at times, in response to the coun- 
try appetite, the disproportionately ex- 
cessive waste usually encountered when 
pursuing a milk-diet was not expe- 
rienced; the digestion-ash (solid ex- 
creta) was extremely small and averaged 
only about one-tenth of the amount com- 
monly wasted in the digestive process 
in ordinary habits of taking bread and 
milk hastily and carelessly. 

It is significant that, while the quan- 
tity of food habitually taken was about 



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tHE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 89 

one-third of the text-book normal-aver- 
age prescription, the solid waste was 
only a tenth of the usual amount, show- 
ing a much more economical digestion 
and a better assimilation. This possi- 
bility of a profitable and an agreeable 
economy was afterwards verified in the 
Venice experiments. 

An aesthetic result was attained in 
connection with these experiments which 
cannot be too often advertised. All pu- 
trid bacterial decomposition was avoided 
in the process of digestion, and all sense 
of muscular fatigue was absent, even fol- 
lowing strenuous and unusual exercise. 

Instead of involving deprivation and 
asceticism, that mid-summer month in 
the Forest of Fontainebleau, occupied in 
making an economy and an endurance- 
test, was a carnival of tempting plenty 
in the way of good food enjoyed to 
the full satisfaction of a healthy appe* 
tite. The endurance-test recounted in 
the letter following is evidence of the 
effect of such sumptuousness when ap- 



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90 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

preached by different methods of grati- 
fication. The powerful young artist 
who volunteers the story lived in the 
ordinary way and the aged reformer and 
research-dietetician, whom the young 
athlete paced, treated his food as rec- 
ommended in this book. 

EDWARD W. REDFIELD'S EVIDENCE 

(In response to an invitation to recount his remem- 
brance of the test after a lapse of four years.) 

"Centre Bridge, Penn. 
"My dear Mr. Fletcher: 

" My remembrance of the trip is as 
follows: On August loth, 1899, I was 
spending the summer at BroUes, on the 
border of the Forest of Fontainebleau in 
France, when you came to visit me and 
enjoy the forest at the same time that 
you were conducting some chewing ex- 
ercises and planning an endurance-test 
on bicycle on the fiftieth anniversary of 
your birthday. You were quietly liv- 
ing then according to the regimen with 
which your name is now connected and 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 9 1 

1 was pursuing the ordinary habits of 
life which are common to artists abroad. 
The test was not only to determine the 
endurance of yourself, but to furnish a 
contrast with ordinary conditions of nu- 
trition. We were eating at the same 
table, with the same food available to 
each, and were taking about the same 
amount of physical exercise. We turned 
in at night at the same time, as people 
are apt to do in the country, and it was 
my custom to rise at or before daylight 
This habit of early rising came natural 
to me from my farmer education and 
habitual practice, and yet I never could 
surprise you early enough to catch you 
asleep. My first thought on getting out 
was to stop under your window and 
chant the refrain, * Mr. Fletcher, are you 
up?' in imitation of the catch-line of a 
popular song of the year. Frequently 
the click of your type-writer warned me 
that you were already at work, but you 
were always awake and ready for * any- 
thing doing.' 



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92 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

" I was, at the time, thirty years of 
age and thought myself in good condi- 
tion and strong even for a farmer's boy ; 
had previously done considerable long- 
distance road-riding, including League 
of American Wheelmen runs, etc., in 
competition with the * cracker jacks'; 
and, to be frank with you, thought the 
agreement to pace you on that particu- 
lar day a * snap,' and I expected to lose 
you in the woods before long. 

" The day was perfect, rather warm, 
as I remember it, and with little or no 
breeze. Our start was made at 3.55 
A.M. (arose at 3.30). Course selected: 
To Fontainebleau and thence across 
country to Orleans, about one hundred 
kilometers distant from Brolles. I con- - 
sidered Orleans the limit and fully ex- 
pected to have you return by railway 
from there. 

"We were running at the rate of 
twenty to twenty-two kilometers the 
hour, and from time to time I would 
look back for Fletcher, but he was al- 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 93 

ways at the same place at my rear 
wheel. A puncture delayed us for 
some fifteen minutes, but when the 
great cathedral bell of Orleans struck 
nine we were already there taking our 
first food of the day, coffee and cres- 
cent rolls. 

" We again started, after a short rest, 
down the Loire, always holding the pace 
of twenty kilometers or better the hour 
in spite of the undulations. We stopped 
occasionally for water and milk, a single 
tumblerful of which satisfied both the 
thirst and the hunger of yourself. 

" To me, the ride, at about this period, 
became a grind, but Fletcher seemed to 
get stronger and stronger and occasion- 
ally led the pace at a terrific clip. My 
condition, as we neared Blois, became 
more than bad with cramps in the legs. 
I had to dismount but couldn't stand 
up, and for awhile, I thought they would 
have to carry me home. I appreciated 
the kind inquiries sympathetically made 
and oft-repeated by yourself as to my 



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94 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

condition, but had you known, at the 
time, how I was cussing your healthy 
appearance and impatience tp proceed, 
you would n't have bothered me so much 
with your sympathy. After a partial 
recovery and the slow ride into Blois, 
six kilometers away, I left you, taking 
the train back to Paris, you having 
decided to go it alone for the rest of 
the day and thus complete the test. 

"The arrival at Blois was about 1.30 
P.M. (170 kilometers — a little above 100 
miles) and took about nine hours, in- 
cluding stops, to accomplish. The next 
morning we received your dispatch from 
Saumur, nearly another hundred miles 
down the Loire, telling us that the run 
to that point had been completed by 
10.10 P.M. that night, and Mr. Fletcher 
returned the next day as fresh and as 
strong as I had ever seen him at any 
time during the summer. 

" Starting the day following with wife 
and daughter for a bicycle ride through 
France to Switzerland I accompanied 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 95 

your party as far as Geneva, and the 
only thing I could n't discover was how 
a man who ate so little could travel so 
far and seem never to get tired. 

(Signed) " Very sincerely, 

"E. W. Redfield." 

**Scpt. 17th, 1903." 



TEST COMPLETED 

The experience of the author on that 
eventful fiftieth birthday, as registered 
in the successive sensations, is worthy 
of record. 

In starting out in the cool of the 
morning as the day was dawning, and 
speeding through the beautiful Forest of 
Fontainebleau, the feeling of exhilaration 
was indescribable. An hour or two 
passed before there was any sense of 
unpleasantness attaching to the steady 
grind of duty which led us to pass re- 
luctantly by inviting spots and scenes 
without stopping. In the beginning 
there was the keenest feeling of pleasure 



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96 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPJCURE 

in the mere movement, without any ex- 
ertion, over and among an enchanting 
landscape. It was what one might call 
a birdlike sensation of freedom of move- 
ment which bicycling and skating, 
among the common means of locomo- 
tion, alone give. 

Red field did not let up on the pace 
and I was determined not to beg for 
respite. Between fifty and sixty kilo- 
meters of distance only had been made 
when I felt that the day was not pro- 
pitious for an endurance-test, and I fully 
expected to be compelled to return from 
Orleans leisurely in the afternoon and 
evening by wheel with only a slight 
addition to the century-run of the pre- 
ceeding Fourth of July accomplished. 
Before Orleans was reached, however, 
all sense of strain passed, and second- 
wind and second-strength had become 
installed for the day. When I left Red- 
field at Blois I felt stronger than any 
time before, and as eager to kick the 
pedals as when we started in the morn- 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 97 

ing and as one always is prompted to 
do when one is filled with surplus energy. 
I had no objective point and was guided 
only by tempting roads and favouring 
breezes. The river road down the Loire 
was most promising at first, but a head 
wind sprang up and made a detour the 
other side of Blois more tempting by 
argument of a fair wind that blew down 
one of the roads leading away from the 
river. For a time I made full twenty- 
five kilometers an hour, but the wind 
died out and I returned to the river road 
and reached Tours in time for the enjoy- 
ment of a magnificent sunset efifect and 
a most appetising and satisfying table 
d'hote dinner. Before dining I jumped 
into a tub and had a good refreshing 
dip and a vigorous rub which made 
me feel like going out to take a walk 
or mount my wheel again. My appe- 
tite for dinner was not large, centred 
on a salad richly dressed with olive oil, 
and was quickly appeased ; immediately 
after which I mounted niy wheel again 



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98 THE NEW GUJTTON OR EPICURE 

and proceeded down the beautiful road 
towards Saumur. My ambition was 
here raised, to complete 300 kilometers 
and the distance to Saumur just about 
filled that ambition. I rode leisurely for 
a time after dining and then gradually 
increased the speed to about eighteen 
kilometers an hour, which brought me to 
my destination a little past ten, with a feel- 
ing of sleepiness that invited to a hasty 
falling into bed, but with surprisingly 
little or no sense of muscular fatigue. 
My cyclometer registered a little more 
than 304 kilometers, or 190 miles; not 
much for experts, under the conditions, 
to be sure, but a revelation of possibilitie3 
to a man of fifty who had once, not many 
years before, been denied life insurance 
on account of health disability. This 
was worth more than millions of money 
to me ; and no one knows how much it 
will signify to the human family when 
the knowledge of a truly economic nutri- 
tion is attained and established. 

I was bright awake at daylight the next 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 99 

morning and had the impulse to mount 
my wheel and see how " fit " I was in con- 
sequence of my exertion of the day before. 
This I did, and rode eighty kilometers 
(fifty miles) before breaking my fast at 
nine o'clock. I believe I could have 
ridden as far that day had the conditions 
been favourable. My weight, on return to 
my balances at BroUes, was reduced two 
kilograms (nearly five pounds), but a gen- 
erous thirst for a day or two, and a slightly 
increased appetite put the loss back again 
inside a week even while riding my 
wheel daily on the way to Geneva. 

Since reaching Italy, and abiding in 
Venice, there have been long periods 
when no systematic physical exercise 
has been indulged in. Once, after 
nearly a year of physical inactivity, I 
took with me an attendant and made 
an average of seventy-five miles a day 
in the mountain districts of southern 
Germany for observation of increase of 
food requirement during hard work. 
Neither muscular soreness, nor muscular 



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lOO THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

fatigue, except the periodical weariness 
of sleepiness, were experienced as the 
result of the sudden change from the 
most restful environment to strenuous 
activity; and herein lies a physiological 
question that is far-reaching in its signifi- 
cance. It would seem that Appetite, in 
its normal condition, assisted in its dis- 
crimination by careful mouth-treatment 
of food, guards the body from excess and 
keeps it always " in training." The later 
experience at Yale University under Dr. 
Anderson and Professor Chittenden 
showed the same immunity from mus- 
cular disability, and has brought the 
question to good hands for solution. 

The author has voluminous data 
relative to his work, but it is not appli- 
cable to any other person. Each person 
is a law unto himself and no two sets of 
conditions are alike. Treat your food 
as advised herein and get surprising new 
experiences for yourselves, is the advice 
and moral of the story. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE lOI 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS 

HEALTH, HARMONY AND 
HAPPINESS 

Health, Harmony and Happiness 
are the natural heritage of man. 

The human body is the most perfect 
piece of mechanism possible to imagine. 

The human body is intended to 
nourish Health, maintain Harmony, and 
conserve Happiness. 

* * * 

The body machine is self-building or 
self-growing, self-lubricating and self- 
repairing. 

A simple knowledge, only, is neces- 
sary for proper (preventive) care of the 
body machine. 

AH that Nature requires of man is 
to supply fuel preferred and, therefore, 
prescribed by Normal Appetite and to 



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I02 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

direct the energy generated along allur- 
ing lines of usefulness. 

* * * 

Nature requires no sacrifices and 
imposes no penalties for obeying her 
beneficent demands. 

Natural Laws are easily compre- 
hended if studied objectively. 

Ill health, inharmony and unhappi- 
ness come only from disobeying Nature. 

God (obeyed) is Only Good. 

NATURE STUDY 

Nature cannot be profitably studied 
alone through books. 

Nature has a separate message for 
each intelligence. 

Each body machine has peculiari- 
ties which the possessor alone can 
understand. 

Object lessons, personally experi- 
enced or observed, are the best. 

"Once seeing (or feeling) is worth 
an hundred times telling about," is a 
wise Japanese proverb ; and it is true. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE lOJ 

As the swinging pendulum taught 
Galileo, and the falling apple suggested 
to Sir Isaac Newton, the law of gravity, 
in like manner the modern electric 
power-plant teaches us, by analogies, 
suggestions useful in the study of our- 
selves — our own Mind Power-Plant 



OLD AND NEW 

THE OLD IDEAS 

The old religion condemned man, 
even though unenlightened, to perdi- 
tion and saved him only through special 
dispensation. 

The old education insisted on narrow 
formulas and tried to cram all mentality 
into prescribed moulds. 

The old physiology presupposed dis- 
ease and glorified pathology. 

THE NEW STUDY 

The new religion glorifies Love, 
stimulates Appreciation and preaches 
only Optimism. 



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I04 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

The new pedagogy aims to discover 
the useful tendency with which each 
creature is equipped at birth and to 
cultivate this God-given inclination as 
designed by the Creator. 

The new physiology studies Hygiene 
and assists Nature by securing Preven- 
tion to avoid the necessity of correction 
and cure. 

SAFE HYPOTHESES 

Assuming that Nature's intentions 
are only right, ill-health is unnatural. 

If Nature's invitations, as expressed 
by Normal Appetite, are rightly inter- 
preted, good health must result. 

When there is bad health Nature 
has been disobeyed. 

A REASONABLE CONCLUSION 

If Physiology has failed to teach 
a way to maintain perfect health some 
of her hypotheses must be wrong. 

If any of the hypotheses of Physi- 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 105 

ology are discredited any one of them 
may be doubted/ 

1 Since this was written, the then accepted stand- 
ards of human food requirements have not only been 
questioned but have been discredited and disproved. 
The great importance of mouth-work in the economics 
of digestion has been demonstrated and accepted. 



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I06 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 



OUR NATURAL GUARDIANS 
THE SENSES 

GUIDING SUPPOSITIONS 

The stomach and other hidden parts 
of the body have automatic functions in- 
dependent of the will that perform diges- 
tion ; these functions are beyond the 
scope of control, and hence means of 
preventing ill-digestion must be studied 
by the aid of the exterior sensations. 

Sight, Appetite, Touch and Taste 
are the senses useful in selection of 
food and in the prevention of indigestion. 

Sight and Appetite relate to invi- 
tation and selection, while Touch and 
Taste are discriminators and indicators 
of conditions. 

Appetite and Taste are the sense 
functions that are most important to 
health, and hence they are the most im- 
portant to study and understand. They 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE I07 

are the guide in nutrition and the guard 
of the body machine — the Mind Power- 
Plant. 

Smell also is an important aid in 
selection and discrimination and is an 
effective assistant of Appetite. 

APPETITE AND TASTE ANALYSED 

Appetite should be dignified and 
recognised as a distinct sense. 

Normal Appetite is Nature's means 
of indicating her fuel and repair re- 
quirements for the Mind Power-Plant 

Study Normal Appetite and heed its 
invitation. It prescribes wisely. Its 
mark of distinction, to differentiate it 
from False Appetite, is "watering of the 
mouth " for some particular thing. 

False Appetite is an indefinite crav- 
ing for something, anything ! to smother 
disagreeable sensations and frequently is 
expressed by the symptom of " faint- 
ness" or " AU-gone-ness." [Vide the 
" A.B.-Z. of Our Own Nutrition."] 

Taste is the chemist of the body; 



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I08 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

of the Mind Power-Plant. More cor- 
rectly, perhaps, it is the report of a 
chemical process relating to nutrition. 

Taste is an evidence of nutrition. 
While taste lasts a necessary process is 
going on. 

Taste should, therefore, be carefully 
studied and understood. 

Both Taste and Appetite dififer in 
different individuals and in the same 
individual under dififerent conditions of 
thought or activity. 

Taste is also dependent on supply of 
the mouth juices usually called saliva, 
and these dififer materially in individuals, 
necessitating self-study, self-understand- 
ing, and self-care to insure prevention 
of indigestion and disease. 

The most important part of nutrition 
is the right preparation of food in the 
mouth for further digestion. 

The most important discovery in 
physiology is the relation of compulsory 
or involuntary swallowing to the right 
preparation of food for digestion. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 109 
# * * 

Taste is evidence of nutrition. 

Whatever does not taste, such as 
glass or stone, is not nutritious/ 

Taste is excited by the dissolving of 
food in the mouth, and while it lasts a 
necessary process of preparation for di- 
gestion is going on. 

The juices of the mouth have the 
power to transform any food that excites 
taste into a substance suitable for the 
body. 

Nothing that is tasteless, except water 
and pure proteid, only by distinct invita- 
tion of appetite, should be taken into the 
stomach. 

If we swallow only the food which 
excites the appetite and is pleasing to 
the sense of taste, and swallow it only 
after the taste has been extracted from 
it, removing from the mouth the taste- 
less residue, complete and easy diges- 

* Pure proteid or albumin is quite tasteless but is 
always accompanied by tasting substance, and separa- 
tion of the proteid molecule from enveloping material 
is an important function of mouth-capacity in digestion. 



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I lO THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

tion will be assured and perfect health 
maintained. 



NATURES FOOD FILTER 

Nature has provided an Automatic 
Food Filter which, if rightly used, will 
prevent the introduction of any harmful 

substance into the stomach. 

# * # 

At the entrance to the throat there are 
certain muscular folds or convolutions, 
including the palate, which, when in re- 
pose, form an organ that is nothing less 
than a Perfect Food Filter. This filter 
has also automatic qualities which com- 
pel it to empty itself by the process we 
call " Involuntary Swallowing." 

Involuntary swallowing is really com- 
pulsory swallowing; unless a voluntary 
effort to restrain it is set up against it. 
The real Swallowing Impulse is so 
strong that it is practically compelling. 

The Food Filter, when rightly per- 
forming its protective function, is imper- 
vious to anything except pure water at 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE III 

the right temperature for admission to 
the stomach- and to nutriment which 
has been properly dissolved and chemi- 
cally converted by salivation (mixture 
with saliva) into a substance suitable for 
further digestion. 

IMPORTANCE OF MASTICATION 

If we masticate — submit to vigorous 
jaw action — everything that we take 
into the mouth, liquid as well as solid, 
until the nutritive part of it disappears 
into the stomach through compulsory 
or involuntary swallowing, and remove 
from the mouth all fibrous, insoluble and 
tasteless remainder, we will take into the 
body, thereby, only that which is good 

for the body. 

♦ * # 

The first thought that will arise in 
the reader's mind on perusal of the 
above declaration will undoubtedly be, 
"What! masticate milk, soups, wines, 
spirits, and other liquids; nonsense I 
That is impossible!" 



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112 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

It is not, however, impossible, and, 
furthermore, it is absolutely necessary to 
protection against abuse of the stomach 
and possible disease. 

Liquid for adults, for anyone after 
the eruption of teeth, is an artificial 
and unnatural sustenance; something 
not taken into consideration when the 
human body was planned. Liquid food 
(drunk without mixing with saliva) is 
a sort of nutritive self-abuse, and the 
only way to avoid the ill efifect is to 
give it the same chance to encounter 
saliva that the constituent ingredients 
would have had in a more solid state. 
For the importance of this see Dr. Camp- 
bell's able treatise on mastication re- 
printed from the London Lancet in the 
" A.B.-Z. of Our Own Nutrition." 
# # # 

The only things necessary to life that 
we are compelled to take into the body 
that do not excite the sense of taste are 
pure air and pure water. These are 
necessary to life, but are not what is 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE II3 

called nutrition. They do not, alone, 
replace waste tissue. They do not chal- 
lenge the sentinel, Taste, and hence do 
not require retention in the field of 
taste. 

If water be pure and tasteless you 
cannot masticate it, as it will not sub- 
mit to more than one action of the jaw 
before causing involuntary swallowing. 
If it have taste it is a sign that it con- 
tains mineral or vegetable substance that 
needs treatment of some sort to render 
it suitable for the body, and it will then 
resist some mastication, some mouth- 
treatment, as in tasting, before com- 
pelling swallowing, just as the sapid 
liquids do. 

Anything that has taste, even soup, 
wine, spirits or whatsoever is tried, will 
resist numerous mastications before being 
absorbed by the Food Filter. Above 
all things, milk, wines, etc., should be 
sipped and tasted to the limit of com- 
pulsory swallowing. 

* * * 
8 



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114 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

In considering the reasonableness of 
masticating everything that has taste 
until it is absorbed by Nature's Food 
Filter, it must be remembered that the 
only liquid food provided for man that 
is not artificial is milk, and the natural 
means provided for taking milk into the 
stomach is by sucking, which is like 
mastication.^ The milk of fruits, such 
as cocoanut milk, for instance, is found, 
in liquid form, only in the unripe fruity 
and remains liquid only while it is ripen- 
ing into pulp. 

# # # 

Insalivation does not seem to be com- 
plete without jaw action, although saliva 
(sometimes only mucous) flows freely 
into the mouth without it under condi- 
tions which we term "watering of the 
mouth " excited by keenness of appetite. 

* Before the eruption of teeth in a child there is no 
secretion of saliva, only mucous ; but mother's milk is 
strongly alkaline, and hence has no need of saliva to 
prepare it for digestion. All milk that has " stood " 
or has been mixed with water is acid, and requires 
saliva to give it the quality of mother's milk. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE tlj 

(See Pawlow's, Campbell's, Van Som- 
eren's, and other evidence in " A.R-Z. 
of Our Own Nutrition.") 

The normal perviousness or natural 
opening of the Food Filter for swallow- 
ing food is directly assisted and a£Fected 
by movement of the jaws exercised in 
vigorous manner. 

Mastication, or mouth -treatment, 
therefore, even of liquids that excite 
taste, seems to be a necessary part of 
thorough insalivation. 

# # # 

Nature has a good reason for every- 
thing she plans. 

It is asserted byphysiological chemists 
that saliva, taken from the mouth and 
kept at normal temperature, will dissolve 
breads and similar foods and convert 
the starch in them into maltose, glucose 
or sugar. The converted form is that 
which is suitable for further digestion. 
Saliva also converts some acids into 
alkali and readily neutralises all acids. 

It is also asserted that saliva does 



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Il6 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

not dissolve some things (proteid sub- 
stances) nor chemically affect them as 
visibly as it does starch and acid, but, 
even if this be true, it is no less essential 
that the juices provided in the mouth 
should have an opportunity, through 
mastication, or, movement about in the 
mouth, to do what they are able to do 
in assisting digestion. 

Experiment shows that if all foods are 
submitted to the examination and action 
of these juices until involuntary swallow- 
ing takes place, the results in aiding 
subsequent digestion are important in 
promoting healthy nutrition. 

Separation, neutralisation, alkalina- 
tion, saccharidation, of the proteid and 
carbo-hydrate elements of common 
foods and perhaps a partial emulsifica- 
tion of fats are all possible in the mouth 
and are more easily and quickly done 
there than inside the body. Much care 
in Mouth-Treatment is an assurance of 
economy and safety in Alimentation. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE II7 



OBJECTIONS CONSIDERED 

One of the objections usually pro- 
voked by the suggestion that all taste- 
less residue remaining in the mouth 
after the taste or nutriment has been 
dissolved out of it should be removed is 
generally expressed in this wise, " How 
is it possible to remove refuse from the 
mouth while eating without appearing 
disgusting to others at table ? You have 
to swallow things to get rid of them." 

This is merely a bugbear prejudice. 
It has no good reason. 

Do you not remove cherry pits, grape 
skins, the shell of lobster, bone, etc., 
when you encounter them ? Then why 
not remove the fibrous matter found in 
tough lean meat, the woody fibre of vege- 
tables or anything rejected by instinct- 
ive desire to discard it after taste has 
been exhausted, and which is a protec- 



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Il8 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

tion provided by beneficent Nature? 
In well selected and well cooked food 
there is little found that the juices of 
the mouth in connection with the teeth 
cannot take care of and prepare so as to 
be acceptable to Nature's Food Filter. 

If fibre is found in the food it can be 
put upon the fork in the same manner 
that a cherry pit is usually handled 
and transferred to the plate without 
observation. 

Another fancied objection to thor- 
ough mastication is that it interferes 
with the sociability of a meal. 

This is also a senseless bugbear. It 
is true that one cannot converse freely 
with large morsels of food in the mouth. 
It is also true that it is nothing less than 
a gluttonous custom to greedily take a 
big mouthful of food, and, if accosted 
with a question, to bolt it in order to 
answer. 

It will be found easy to carry on con- 
versation without disagreeable interrup- 
tion and yet follpw Nature'3 demands iu 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE II9 

properly masticating food by taking 
small morsels into the mouth. It will 
be found also to add to the real pleasure 
of eating, and eventually will become a 
habit by choice. 

Another objection raised by those 
who are afflicted with the habit of glut- 
tony is the lack of time permitted by 
their business occupation. 

The time needed to appease the nat- 
ural appetite of a hearty and active man, 
to compensate for the daily waste and 
keep the weight at normal, is from thirty 
to forty-five minutes for twenty-four 
hours.^ This requires attention and in- 
dustrious mastication. Divided into 
three meals it is less than a quarter of 
an hour for each meal. 

1 The actual time required by the author during 
the Yale tests to secure full aliinentation, maintain 
weight, and fully appease a " workingman's appe- 
tite," was from twenty-four to twenty-six minutes, 
divided into two meals for each day. The common 
habit is to bolt food and waste time afterwards in 
torpid inactivity, while all the energy is busy in the 
stomach and intestines trying to get rid of the great 
exceM loaded upon them. 



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120 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

Epicurean habits, however, incline 
one away from three meals a day and 
make two meals sufficient for ordinary 
activity. 

One objector, on the spur of momen- 
tary discussion, claimed that in travelling 
by railway the time allowed for eating 
would not permit Epicurean methods. 

The author arrived at Mobile, Ala., 
recently with a workingman's appetite 
and had only twenty minutes in which 
to get off the train, on again, and satisfy 
the appetite. There is an excellent 
lunch counter now at Mobile, and on 
the counter there was a tempting array 
of things to eat and drink. Appetite 
chose at once a fat, rich ham sandwich,^ 
a glass of creamy milk and a hexagonal 

^ Five years of Epicurean enjo3rment and study of 
the food instincts and food economics have taught 
the author to like many things better than slices of 
dead pig sandwiched between slices of delicious bread. 
Vegetarian extremist and faddist the author is not, 
but an attention to natural leadings inclines one away 
from dead meat, which is believed to induce much 
uric acid, and in favour of first-hand food elements as 
fresh from the heart and the breast of Mother Nature 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE I2f 

segment of a mince pie. The twenty 
minutes was ample time for disposing of 
the sandwich and the milk, and mean- 
time the mince pie had been wrapped 
in silk paper and placed in a paper 
bag to furnish Epicurean enjoyment for 
twenty miles on the road, enhanced by 
the beauty of a panoramic landscape. 

If I had crammed the pie and the 
sandwich and the milk into my stomach 
in seven or eight minutes, which, by 
actual observation, is the gluttonous rate 
of despatching a station meal, I would 
have lost two-thirds of nutriment, more 
than one-half of taste and would have 
perhaps taken on twenty-four hours of 
discomfort, possibly inviting a cold. I 
would have created an " open door " for 

as possible, leaving the second-hand, once-digested, 
already decaying, natural food of the savage carni- 
vora and the emergency food of savage man for emer- 
gency occasions or a vegetable famine. Much meat 
excites lust, intemperance, and savagery in man and 
gives explosive, non-enduring force. The question is, 
do we need such force in the twentieth century, espe- 
cially when we know that it tends to shorten life and 
predispose to disease? 



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122 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPIOJRE 

any migrating microbes that were float- 
ing about in my atmosphere looking for 
strained tissue or fermenting food in 
which to build their disease nests. 

Observation proves that you do not 
get much more nutriment out of your 
food than saliva prepares in some way 
for digestion, gulp though you may, but 
you can take in a load of disease possi- 
bilities in trying to force the food past 
or otherwise evade proper salivation. 

SPIT IT OUT 

Whatever does not insalivate easily 
is surely dangerous. 

There is nothing more pronounced 
of expression by its influence on inclina- 
tion than the impulsive desire to spit 
out of the mouth anything that seems 
unprofitable to the senses. 

INSTINCTIVE DISCRIMINATION 

Muscles have been provided for this 
purpose (separating, collecting, and spit- 
ting-out anything which the instincts 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 153 

protest against) that are more facile 
than those of an elephant's proboscis, 
and these muscles move things to and 
fro in the mouth or expel them if they 
are undesirable. 

If you acquire the habit of consulting 
the Swallowing Impulse and practise 
only involuntary swallowing in eating you 
will find that these muscles are very dis- 
criminating and will instinctively assist 
in the rejection of unprofitable matter. 

Their sense of touch will soon dis- 
criminate against unprofitable food even 
when the sense of taste is fooled by some 
alluring sauce or condiment. 

Nature is truly a marvel of good 
sense if you give her a chance to express 
her likes and dislikes without restraint. 

Natural Appetite is the best possible 
judge of what the system needs, and the 
senses which Nature's Food Chemist 
emplo)rs in her work are unerring in 
their selection whenever they are per- 
mitted to act as intended by Nature. 



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124 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 
GIVE NATURE A TRIAL 

Try Nature's way for a week or 
a month and you will never have a 
desire to be even mildly gluttonous 
again. 

One week of faithful trial without 
lapses should fix a habit of consulting 
involuntary swallowing as an automatic 
guide in eating so that attention will 
not have to be strained to heed it. 

One week of constant attention to 
obeying Nature's demands in eating will 
so impress its usefulness on the student 
of Epicureanism that an accidental act 
of forced swallowing will be a shock to 
the sensibility. 

Oiiie week of obedience of Nature's 
simple requirements will demonstrate 
that she imposes no penalties for follow- 
ing her natural requirements, but only 
for disobedience of her protective laws. 

One week of earnest, open-minded 
study of Nature's first principle of life 
— nutrition — will convert a pitiable 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 25 

glutton into an intelligent and ardent 
Epicurean. 

DIFFERENCES 

Individuals differ greatly in the quan* 
tity of the supply of the juices of the 
mouth which are active in salivation. 
They differ so much that it is safe to 
say that no two have equal provision. 

One person may dispose of a morsd 
of bread in thirty mastications so that 
the last vestige of it has disappeared by 
involuntary process into the stomach. 
Another person, of similar general heailii 
appearance, selecting as nearly as possi- 
ble an equal morsel of bread, may require 
fifty acts of mastication before the mor- 
sel has disappeared. The next week, 
by some change of conditions this order 
may be reversed. While there may be 
some structural or chemical difference 
in the two morsels of bread, this is not 
sufficient to account for the different 
mastications required. The dissimilar- 
ity lies in the difference of the copiou#- 



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126 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

ness and strength of the secretions at 
the time of trial. 

This liability to changed conditions 
would constitute a serious danger if it 
were not for the protective Food Filter, 
or, Reflex of Deglutition, which Van 
Someren has so well described in the 
"A.B.-Z;" and whenever mouth-treat- 
ment of anything to be ingested is neg- 
lected, and forced swallowing — hasty 
bolting of food or gulping of liquid 
food — is indulged in, this protection 
is eluded and the danger is converted 
into actual internal self-abuse. 

WARNING 

Above all things don't strain to be 
careful. Strain inhibits — paralyses — 
all of the glandular functions and de- 
ranges the nervous nicety of adjustment. 
Just eat slowly, deliberately, small mor- 
sels, and sip and taste small quantities 
of liquids and observe what happens. 
You will soon learn to Know yourself 
and " Know Thyself " has been the 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 27 

advice of all the sages from the begin- 
ning of time. 



GLADSTONE S RULE 

Numbers of mastications as related 
to given quantities and kinds of foods 
are no guide to be relied upon. 

Gladstone's dictum, "Chew each mor- 
sel of food at least thirty- two times," was 
of little value except as. a general sug- 
gestion. Some morsels of food will not 
resist thirty-two mastications, while oth- 
ers will defy seven hundred. 

The author has found that one-fifth 
of an ounce of the midway section of the 
garden young onion, sometimes called 
"challot," has required seven hundred 
and twenty-two mastications before dis- 
appearing through involuntary swallow- 
ing. After the tussle, however, the 
young onion left no odour upon the 
breath and joined the happy family in 
the stomach as if it had been of corn- 
starch softness and consistency. 



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128 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

It will be difficult, without actual dem- 
onstration, to convince the advocates of 
"Total Abstinence" that any whisky 
can be taken in a seemingly harmless 
form, but it is true that thorough in- 
salivation of beer, wine or spirits, until 
disappearance by involuntary .swallow- 
ing, robs them of their power to in- 
toxicate, partly because appetite will 
tokrate but little. 

TEMPERANCE PROMOTED 

As ^ matter of fact, whisky taken in 
this analytical way is a sure means of 
breaking up desire for it, and it is an ex- 
cellent protection in drinking as well as 
eating. Many of our test-subjects have 
been steady and some have been heavy 
drinkers but persistent attention to 
Buccal-Thoroughness has cured all of 
them of any desire for alcohol and in 
time it surely leads to complete intoler- 
ance of it. 

It is also true that, taken in the way 
suggested, the body refuses to tolerate 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICXJRE 129 

more than sips and thimblefuls of the3e 
Hquid3 and then only on rare occasions, 
so that the Epicurean habit is the best 
possible insurance of temperance. 



NORMAL CONDITIONS RESTORED 

While the difference in the supply of 
the juices of the mouth is an important 
factor in digestion, insufficiency need 
not cause alarm. Nature is so gladly 
and quickly recuperative that the mo- 
ment abuses of her functions are stopped 
she begins to repair damages and re- 
establish normal conditions. 

One of the subjects who submitted 
himself to experiment was found to be 
woefully deficient in saliva and, was a 
pitiable dyspeptic, but, as the result of 
patient mastication, the secretions grad- 
ually increased until they were ample, 
and dyspeptic symptoms disappeared 
even long before the secretions became 
normal The strain of excessive and 
{acid) fermenting food being removed, 
9 



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I30 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

the acute discomfort was at once allayed 
even before the repair was complete. 



•'know thyself" 

"Know Thyself" has been the ad- 
monition of sages from earliest times. 
" Become acquainted with your Normal 
Instincts, with Appetite and with your 
food chemist, Taste, and follow their di- 
rections with implicit confidence," is the 
admonition taught by our experiments, 
for they can lead you to robust health 
and greatly increased vigour of body and 
mind. Study and heed them patiently 
for a week and you will follow their in- 
vitations and warnings through life. 

Thorough repair of an impaired body 
may not be effected immediately, al- 
though wonderful results — almost mi- 
raculous — have been attained in three 
months ; but a week's faithful and atten- 
tive study of the possibilities of Epicu- 
reanism, with right alimentation as its 
basic requirement, in adding to the 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 131 

comfort and enjoyment of life will re- 
sult in right eating being made philo- 
sophically and religiously habitual, and 
will give a backbone of Epicurean char- 
acter that will not easily succumb to 
gluttonous impetuosity. 



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132 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 
THE MIND POWER-PLANT 

A USEFUL ANALOGY 

All of the functions of the body are 
operated by something very much akin 
to electricity — mental energy — so that 
aside from the fermentation which glut- 
tony makes possible, the mere drag of 
handling of dead material in the body, 
that the body cannot use, for two or 
three days, is a wasteful draught on 
the available mental capacity. 

Using an electric power-plant as an- 
alogous to the Mind Power- Plant of the 
brain, and a trolley railroad as analogous 
to the machinery of the body — analo- 
gies which are very close by consistent 
similarity — the loading of the stomach 
with unprepared food, as in gluttony, is 
like loading flat cars with pig iron and 
running them around the line of the 
road in place of passenger cars, thereby 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 33 

using up valuable energy and wearing 
out the equipment without any profit 
resulting from the expenditure. 

To those who are familiar with the 
modern electric power-plant the analogy 
between it and the human individual 
Equipment, or Mind Power-Plant, seems 
very remarkable. 

To those, however, who have not vis- 
ited an electric power-plant a description 
is necessary. 

DESCRIPTION OF A MODERN 
ELECTRIC POWER-PLANT 

Fuel, of course, is the source of the 
power. Furnaces which are capable of 
producing heat with the least consump- 
tion of fuel, tubes within the boilers that 
permit the freest possible contact of the 
heat produced and the water to be turned 
into steam, steam pipes that are flexible 
and yet strong, machinery that moves 
with the least friction in order to con- 
centrate and utilise the power of the 



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134 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

steam, and dynamos out of which elec- 
tricity is evolved, together with auxiliary 
pumps and hoists and blowers and what- 
not other devices to help create, control 
and economise the energy, are the essen- 
tial parts of an electric power-plant. To 
insure economy and accuracy these are 
made as nearly automatic as possible. 

At one end of the furnace house there 
is sunk in the cement floor a large iron 
scoop or tray into which cartloads of 
lump coal are dumped. This scoop- 
shaped receptacle is also the platform 
of a weighing machine so that each 
load is weighed. In the bottom of the 
scoop there is a trap-door, which, being 
opened, permits the coal to drop through 
between the teeth of a crusher where 
the large lumps are reduced, usually to 
the size of a small nut. 

From the crusher the coal falls into 
the buckets of an endless chain-hoist 
and is conveyed aloft to great hopper- 
shaped bins which occupy the entire 
space under the roof over the furnaces. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 35 

Leading back from each bin to the con- 
stantly moving grate bars of the furnace 
underneath is a pipe which delivers the 
crushed coal to the grate bars and dis- 
tributes it evenly over their surface as 
fast as it can be received into the furnace, 
regulated, of course, by the consumption 
that is going on inside the furnace. 

To accomplish this automatic feeding 
each set of grate bars is constructed in 
hinged sections, and forms a wide end- 
less iron belt which revolves and carries 
the coal within the cavity of the furnace. 

The coal crusher, bucket hoist, mov- 
able grate bars, ash collectors and sifters, 
pumps, blowers, lights and all other utili- 
ties of the plant, as well as the great 
travelling crane which can hoist and 
carry many tons* weight — any part of 
the enormous dynamos — from place to 
place, are operated by electricity which 
is generated in the dynamos. 

Automatic gauges that measure and 
indicate, and switch-boards that regulate 
the energy created and stored in the 



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136 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

dynamos play important parts in the 
economy and working of the plant and 
are analogous to appetite and taste in 
man, 

ANALOGY ILLUSTRATED 

The full analogy may be best illus- 
trated by arranging the similar functions 
of the two energy-creating machines 
opposite each other in parallel columns. 

ELECTRIC AND MIND POWER-PLANTS 
COMPARED 

BLBCTRIC POWfiR-PLAirr HIND POWER-PLANT 

FiieL Food. 

« « « 
Selection of fuel as to Selection of food for 
Steam-makii^ and eco- fiutritive value; oomial 
nomic qualities. appetite serving as an 

exact guide and gauge. 

« • « 

Crushing coal so as to Masticating food so 

render combustion as that the juices of the 

easy and complete as mouth can act on the 

possible. substance with greatest 

freedom ; taste being evi- 
dence of the working of 
the process. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 37 



Automatic conve3ral of Automatic reception of 
the prepared fuel, first to properly masticated and 
the bins and then on to thoroughly insalivated 
the furnace as required. food into Nature's Food 

Filter and emptying into 
the furnace of the stomach 
by Involuntary, or Con^ 
pulsory Swallowing. 

• « « 

Combustion in the fur- Digestion in the stom- 
nace. ach and intestines. 

« « « 
Generation of steam in Generation of material 
the boiler tubes and stor- for vital energy and stor- 
age in the boilers. age in the body. 
« « « 
Steam. Blood in circulation. 

• « « 
Steam G»ige. Pulse. 

« « « 
Eoi^e. Heart. 

« « « 

DynamO) witii its no- Brain, with its complex 

merous coils and ezten- convolutions in constant 

sive friction surfaces. frictional activity. 

« « « 

Volt Gauge, indicating Strength, indicating the 

the power available. available energy. 

• « « 

Electricity. Mind. Energy. Ner- 

fou Faroe. 



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138 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 



AUXILIARY OPERATING MOTORS 



Electric motors at- 
tached to the separate 
parts or machines of the 
plant, connected by wires 
and drawing power from 
the dynamos. 



Automatic switches 
regulating the transmis- 
sion of power to the mo- 
tors in response to their 
fluctuating requirements. 



Nerve-cell motors at- 
tached to glands and 
muscles, connected with 
the brain by nerve-fibres 
and drawing on the men- 
tal or nervous energy for 
power. 
« « 

Sensitive nerve ends 
terminating in each cell of 
the body and penetrating 
each gland, signalling, on 
being touched, for power 
to eject digestive secre- 
tions or oily mucus as de- 
manded by the needs of 
digestion, also, supplying 
automatic power to mus- 
cles employed in exterior 
work or in moving the 
food substance on through 
the process of digestion 
and afterward disposing 
of the excreta — ashes and 
clinkers, as it were. The 
ganglions are the switch 
boards of the body. 



Automatic demand for 
fuel as required in the 
progress of combustion 
to supply the waste or 



Appetite, indicating re- 
quirements of the Mind 
Power-Plant for replace- 
ing the constant waste of 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 39 

useful consumption of the tissue consumed in run- 
electricity, ning the machine. 
« « « 
Good Draughty forced Optimistic Thinking, 
if necessary. forced if necessary, for it 

is necessary to health. 



PROFITABLE BfANAGEMENT 

Intelligent Engineer- Intelligent Self-Knowl- 

ing. edge and Self-Care, as- 

sisting Nature in her 
good intentions. 
« « « 
Economic stoking. Feeding only what is 

actually required for sus- 
tenance. 

UNPROFITABLE MANAGEMENT 

Overloading and chok- Overloading and chok- 

ing the furnace with ir- ing the stomach with 
regular and dirty coal. immasticated, unsolved, 

unconverted, and, there- 
fore indigestible food. 
« « « 
Neglect of cleaning. Nature is not neglect- 

oiling and repairs. ful; she does well and 

quickly all the lubricating 
and repairing of the 
Mind Power-Plant when- 
ever strain is removed 
and she is given the re- 
quired rest, or time to 



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I40 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

accomplish thc^ work b^ 
tween meals. 
• « « 
Unnecessary ashes and Unnecessary ferment- 
clinkers, encumbering the ing excreta, resulting from 
plant, depositing dust in unfiltered and unpre- 
the journals of the ma- pared food, depositing 
chines and requiring poisonous sediment in the 
much power to handlQ blood channels, straining 
and remove. the intestines, ossif3ring 

the cartilages, crystallis- 
ing in the kidneys and 
bladder and drawing ex- 
cessively upon the avail- 
able energy of the nervous 
centres and the available 
brain energy for power to 
handle and discharge. 



PROFITABLE PIRBCTION AND ySE pP ENBRGV 

Good wires leading to Creditatiie dms in life, 
profitable uses. 

« « « 
Good insulation or iso- Concentration of pur« 
latipn of circuit wires. pose. 

« « « 

Resistance Q>Usp Self-Control. Reserve 

force. 
# « « 
Success, evidenced by Success, evidenced by 
pra&L energy conserved and hap- 

piness secured. 



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THE NEW GLirrXON OR EPICURE 141 



UNPROFITABLE DIRECTION AND USE OF ENERGY 

Small wires leading Aimlessness of purpose 

an3rwhere or nowhere. and timid, lazy or selfish 

isolation from sympa- 
thetic currents and con- 
structive occupation. 
» » « 
Current carelessly Energy wasted in idle- 

grounded and electricity ness or worry, 
wasted. 

» « » 

Crossing of wires re- Crossed temper — An- 

sulting in waste of power ger — wasting valuable 
and possibly causing fire. energy and possibly lead- 
ing to rash acts causing 
life-long regrettable fool- 
ishness. 
m * * 
Placing flat cars on Importing worry 

an electric trolley line, through anticipated evil 
for instance, loading them on an hundred-to-one 
with pig iron and pur- chance of its being real- 
poselessly running them ised, thereby wasting 
aimlessly around the cir- energy and paralysing the 
cuit, thereby wasting the digestive and repair 
electricity and wearing out functions of the body; 
the cars and the line. painfully wearing out the 

body itself. 
♦ * * 
Allowing cars to run Permitting Anger to 

wild instead of keeping run away with cool dis- 
them under control. cretion. 



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142 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 



TELL-TALE EXCRETA 

It is unfortunate that the perpetua- 
tion of early ignorant abuses of Nature's 
pure intentions has led to a too prudish 
attitude toward the one infallible evi- 
dence of health conditions as shown by 
the refuse of repair and digestion, as 
it is only by the excreta that ultimate 
indication of the results of nutrition are 
observable. They are the reliable re- 
port relative to the most important 
thing in health — digestion — and they 
must be understood in order to be read. 

There is no knowledge so valuable 
in its relation to health as that which 
enables one to read health bulletins by 
means of the excreta. 

Different foods contain different ele- 
ments of waste material and to be able 
to identify or judge the economic value 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE I43 

of food previously consumed a knowl- 
edge of its digestion-ash is essential. 

A child should be taught the differ- 
ence between healthy and unhealthy 
excreta in order to be on guard at the 
first warning of disorder, rather than be 
allowed to remain ignorant until disease 
has taken firm hold of the system. The 
knowledge is not complicated and can 
be easily acquired by even young 
children. 

When the possibility of perfect pro- 
tection in the matter of nutrition is 
generally known, one mission of the 
physician will be to teach prevention 
of abuses of feeding by evidence of 
the excreta. 

The healthy faeces of many wild ani- 
mals is comparatively dry, odourless 
and cleanly; and a farm barn yard or 
a decently kept city stable is not an 
offence to even prudish prejudice. 

Not so the vicinage of an open re- 
ceptacle for the waste of human in- 
digestion. 



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144 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

In animals, offensive egesta are evi- 
dence of digestive disturbance owing 
to some unintelligent feeding on the 
part of attendants ; in humans the cause 
and effect of offensive excreta are the 
same. 

When a race- or work-animal shows 
digestive disturbance the least intelli- 
gent owner or keeper knows that it is 
not fit for work or racing, and yet this 
symbol of unfitness is common to the 
human race. 

One of the most noticeable and sig- 
nificant results of economic nutrition 
gained through careful attention to the 
mouth-treatment of food, or buccal-di- 
gestion, is, not only the small quantity of 
waste obtained but its inoffensiveness. 
Under best test-conditions the ashes 
of economic digestion have been re- 
duced to one-tenth of the average given 
as normal in the latest text-books on 
Physiology. The economic digestion- 
ash forms in pillular shape and when 
released these are massed together, hav- 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 45 

ing become so bunched by considerable 
retention in the rectum. There is no 
stench, no evidence of putrid bacterial de- 
composition, only the odour of warmth, 
like warm earth or " hot biscuit." Test 
samples of excreta, kept for more than 
five years, remain inoffensive, dry up, 
gradually disintegrate and are lost. The 
following observation by an eminent eye 
specialist and litterateur illustrates the 
opening paragraph of this chapter. 

PERIODICITY 

The question of "when" or "how 
often" the solid excreta should be 
voided or released is one that imme- 
diately presents itself when the subject 
is under discussion. The common opin- 
ion is that "once-a-day" periodicity is 
the proper and only healthy thing, and 
should a day pass there would be imme- 
diate fear of " constipation." 

Under the best test conditions, before 
referred to, the ash accumulated in suffi- 
cient quantity to demand release only at 
10 



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146 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

the end of six, eight, or ten days, the 
longer periods of rest being the evidence 
of the best economic and health results. 

Under ordinary conditions of careless- 
ness and strenuous environment, say an 
exciting and exacting city occupation, 
twice a week is as often as one should 
accumulate a deposit of digestion-ash 
and feel sure that the strain on the 
system is not excessive and dangerous. 
Young people seem to thrive even when 
delivering daily a large quantity of 
smelly excreta; but it is an abuse of 
the " ten-horse reserve " ^ with which the 
human engine is supplied; and along 
in the "forties "or the "fifties "or the 
"sixties" the body shows signs of pre- 
mature wear when it should be but in 
its prime. 

Another important matter should be 
mentioned in this exchange of sanitary 
confidences. When the ashes of diges- 

^ Dr. Meltzer's estimate of human reserve strength 
and resistance which must be out- worn or over- 
strained before death, calls a settlement 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 47 

tion are dumped the body should assume 
the shape oi the letter Z. It is the 
natural position of primitive man (squat- 
ting on his heels), and the body was 
originally constructed on that plan. If 
otherwise poised (sitting erect) the deliv- 
ery of digestion-ash is performed with 
the same difficulty as would be experi- 
enced when trying to force a semi-solid 
through a bent or a kinked hose. 

The publication of the observation 
of Dr. , here following, is a break- 
away from the prudery of a diseased and 
disgusting age, — a protest jointly shared 
by the scientific observer and the volun- 
tary test-subject, whose only aim in the 
pursuit of the study to "a finish" is the 
ultimate benefit of the human race. 

SCIENTIFIC OBSERVATION OF A 
LITERARY TEST-SUBJECT 

" During his sojourn in Washington 

in July, 1903, I saw much of Mr. , 

and in a very intimate way. The weather 



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148 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

at that period was very hot, sometimes 
near icx>°, and very sultry. For ten 
days or two weeks in the midst of this 
season he was busily engaged in con- 
structive writing, turning out on an 
average some eight thousand words on 
his typewriter daily, which meant a close 
application for ten or fourteen hours 
each day. He usually began his work 
at from two to five o'clock in the morn- 
ing, continuing often until three or four 
o'clock in the afternoon, when w^e would 
commonly go together to a ball game, 
which he enjoyed with the enthusiasm 
of a boy of twelve. Later in the evening 
he would resume his work for from one 
to three hours, retiring at from ten to 
about midnight. His food consisted of 
a glass of milk with a trace of coffee, 
and corn *gems,' four of which he con- 
sumed in the twenty-four hours. Occa- 
sionally he would add in very hot 
weather a glass of lemonade. There 
was at no time any evidence of mental 
or physical fatigue. That such an 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 49 

amount of work, with the maintenance 
of perfect health, could be accomplished 
on such a small quantity of food can be 
accounted for only on the assumption 
of a complete assimilation of the in- 
gested material. As the degree of com- 
bustion is indicated by the ashes left, so 
the completeness of digestion is to be 
measured by the amount and character 
of the intestinal excreta. A conclusive 
demonstration of thorough digestion 

in Mr. 's case was afforded me. 

There had, under the regime above 
mentioned, been no evacuation of the 
bowels for eight days. At the end of 
this period he informed me that there 
were indications that the rectum was 
about to evacuate, though the material 
he was sure could not be of a large 
amount. Squatting upon the floor of 
the room, without any perceptible effort 
he passed into the hollow of his hand 
the contents of the rectum. This was 
done to demonstrate human normal 
cleanliness and inoffensiveness ; neither 



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I50 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

stain nor odour remaining, either in the 
rectum or upon the hand.^ The ex- 
creta were in the form of nearly round 
balls, varying in size from a small marble 
to a plum. These were greenish-brown 
in colour, of firm consistence, and cov- 
ered over with a thin layer of mucus; 
but there was no more odour to it than 
there is to a hot biscuit. 

" The whole mass weighed 56 grams. 
The next day there was a further deposit 
of the same kind of dry- waste, making 
1 35 grams (about 4I ounces) for the nine 
days. It seems to me there could be no 
more conclusive evidence of complete 
digestion and assimilation than this. 
The existence of perfect nutrition is 
indicated by his ability to continue, with- 
out fatigue and under trying conditions, 
work which could only be accomplished 
in an ideal condition of health. 

"Washington, D. C, July 31, 1903." 

^ Similar specimens of digestion-ash have been 
kept for five years without change other than drying 
to dust 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 151 



WHAT SENSE? 
TASTE 1 

The Sense of Taste has a value in 
relation to nutrition that has not fully 
been appreciated. 

Taste has been considered the low- 
est, in usefulness, of all the senses. 

On the contrary, if properly under- 
stood, taste is one of the most important 
of all the faculties man possesses. 

Taste has lacked appreciation, for 
the reason that it has been supposed 
that it catered to sensuality, in the vul- 
gar sense, and performed the function of 
devilish temptation rather than that of 
natural invitation and protection. 

1 " Glutton or Epicure " was originally composed 
of two smaller booklets entitled " Nature's Food 
Filter ; or, What and When to Swallow " and " What 
Sense ? or, Economic Nutrition ; " bound together. 
In this revision the order has been retained with some 
repetitions, but with different applications. 



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152 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

Upon an examination, that any one 
can make for himself, however, it is 
revealed that taste is the faithful ser- 
vant of appetite; the sentinel of the 
stomach, of the intestines, of the tissues 
and of the brain, whose guidance and 
warning, if heeded, will give heretofore 
unknown enjoyment of eating, and at 
the same time insure perfect health 
and the maximum of strength. 



TASTE IS THE GUIDE AND GUARD OF 
NUTRITION 

The more we learn, the more evident 
it is that there is a Perfect Way locked, 
or, rather, enfolded, in all of Nature's 
secrets, and that it is intended that man 
shall sometime discover them. 

Taste, in its normal condition, when 
allowed to direct or advise, serves several 
important functions, not the least of 
which is as first-assistant to Appetite. 
Appetite craves the kind of nourishment 
the body needs, invites to eating, gives 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 53 

enjoyment during the whole time needed 
for the fluids of the mouth and the 
stomach to do their part of the digestive 
process. Taste ceases when the food is 
ready for the stomach and thereafter 
fails to recognise the indigestible sedi- 
ment which remains in the mouth after 
nutriment has been extracted; and, in 
these discriminations, if consulted and 
obeyed. Taste and Appetite prevent 
indigestible matter from entering the 
system to burden and clog the lower in- 
testines, form deposits in bone, cartilage 
and kidneys, inflame the tissues, and 
otherwise create conditions favourable 
to the propagation of the microbes of 
disease. 

The normal sensitiveness of taste can 
be recovered, if already lost, in the course 
of a week, or two weeks at most, by 
means of the stimulating and regenera- 
ting influence of natural body-repair, 
if the method of taste and appetite cul- 
tivation recommended in this book is 
followed. 



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154 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

Those who now enjoy good health 
will find a new joy in living when they 
have discovered the intelligent use of 
taste and submit the fuel of their Mind 
Power-Plant and strength to the analysis 
and selection of Nature's instinctive 
agenta 

LATEST DEFINITION 

Dr. William T. Harris, in his latest 
contribution to the " International Edu- 
cation Series/' Psychologic Foundations 
of Education^ defines the presently ap- 
preciated value of the sense of taste, as 
follows : " The lowest form of special 
sense is taste, which is closely allied to 
nutrition. Taste perceives the phase of 
assimilation of the object, which is com- 
mencing with the mouth. The individ- 
uality of the object is attacked and it 
gives way, its organic product or inor- 
ganic aggregate suffering dissolution : — 
taste perceives the dissolution. Sub- 
stances that do not yield to the attack 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 55 

of the juices of the mouth have no taste. 
Glass and gold have little taste as com- 
pared with salt or sugar. The sense of 
taste differs from the process of nutrition 
in the fact that it does not assimilate the 
body tasted, but reproduces ideally the 
energy that makes the impression on 
the sense organ of taste. Even taste, 
therefore, is an ideal activity, although 
it is present only when the nutritive 
energy is assimilating — it perceives 
the object in a process of dissolution. 

" Smell is another specialisation which 
perceives dissolution of objects in a more 
general form than taste. Both smell and 
taste perceive chemical changes that in- 
volve dissolution of the object." 

If this is the recognised estimate 
of taste, which is true as widely as I 
have been able to inquire, both among 
physicians and among the latest books 
on health, it is certainly a case of neg- 
lected appreciation such as the world has 
not witnessed up to the present time. 



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156 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 



PRESUMED CAUSES OF DISEASES 

On the undisputed authority of phys- 
iologists it is known that all diseases 
are made possible by derangement which 
is favourable to the propagation of the 
microbes of disease, or by deposits of 
inharmonious matter which are not 
thrown off. 

Derangement of all the substance of 
the internal body is effected mainly, and 
probably entirely, by deposit of indigest- 
ible food or of tissue which is broken 
down and is not thereafter expelled 
from the system by the ordinary means 
provided for the discharge of waste. 

These inharmonious deposits which 
cause so much direct and indirect trouble 
are mainly, and probably entirely, the re- 
sult of excess of eating, or of wrong eat- 
ing, so that the digestive organs of the 
body cannot take care of what is forced 
on them; or, of admitting substances 
which they are powerless to make into 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 157 

good blood or discharge by the regular 
means provided by nature. 

Right eating and right food are, then, 
the all-important considerations of health, 
as far as the tissues are concerned ; and, 
as the tissues are themselves the stored 
food or fuel of the brain and the nerve 
centres,, the importance of perfect nutri- 
tion extends to the most vital functions 
and interests of life. 

TARDY APPRECIATION 

All experience warns against over- 
eating and improper eating as the most 
common causes of disease ; and troubles 
of the stomach and intestines are known 
to be the parents of all other bodily ills ; 
yet no fixed guide has been set to de- 
termine what is " overeating " and what 
is " improper food." The reason for this 
is probably because no two bodies re- 
quire the same quantity or kind of nour- 
ishment, and, " What is one man's food 
is another man's poison." 

Nature has not been so unkind, how- 



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158 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

ever, as to leave man without a means of 
knowing just how to gauge the quantity 
of food required for her best service, and 
probably, when we learn the secret, has 
equally well provided us with certain 
discrimination relative to the quality of 
food that is best for harmonic develop- 
ment. 

Investigation never fails to find pro- 
vision for both guard and guide in all 
of Nature's plans and man's nutrition is 
of such importance that she surely has 
not left it out of the list of the protected. 

Of the power of taste to discriminate 
accurately in the matter of comparative 
value of foods I am not sure as yet, 
although I am confident the power rests 
somewhere within our reach if we can 
only discover it; but I have the best 
evidence possible that taste has the 
power to advise accurately in the matter 
of the kind of food and the quantity re- 
quired; and, having selected what it 
wants or needs out of a morsel of food, 
rejects the rest by ceasing to taste. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 59 

The message or warning which taste 
gives in connection with eating is, " that 

WHILE ANY TASTE IS LEFT IN A MOUTHFUL 
OF FOOD IN PROCESS OF MASTICATION OR 
SUCKING, IT IS NOT YET IN CONDITION TO 
BE PASSED ON TO THE STOMACH; AND 
WHAT REMAINS AFTER TASTE HAS CEASED 
IS NOT FIT FOR THE STOMACH." 

WHAT SENSE? 

When one comes to think about it, 
what sense is there in throwing away a 
palatable morsel of food when the taste 
is at its best, or while taste lasts at all, 
even if the purpose of the meal is merely 
to contribute to the pleasure of eating ? 

" Some people live to eat and others 
eat to live " is a saying that is familiar 
to everyone, and yet how few appreciate 
that the perfection of living includes the 
perfection of both these desiderata ! 

Such is the impetuosity of unculti- 
vated or perverted human tendencies 
that the desire for acquisition, some- 



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l6o THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

times called greed, impels one to swal- 
low one mouthful of food to take in 
another, without ever dreaming that the 
very last contribution of taste to the last 
remnant of a delicious morsel is like the 
last flicker of a candle, more brilliant 
than any of the preceding ones. In 
eating, the last taste, when saliva, the 
medium of taste, is most perfectly in 
possession of the solution, is better than 
all the other stages of the process. It is 
the choicest and sweetest expression of 
the incident, as related to each mouth- 
ful. Then why not court it and obey, 
thereby, Nature's first law of health ? 
# # # 

Before proceeding further with a de- 
scription of its functions it may be well 
to state briefly the certain result of fol- 
lowing the guidance and heeding the 
warnings of taste. 

Taste determines the mastication of 
food so that the requisite quantity of 
saliva and other juices of the mouth are 
added in transit, so that the stomach 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE l6l 

and the intestines will have the least 
possible to do in the matter of conver- 
sion of the food to blood, and so that 
the brain and nerve centres will be 
taxed the least possible to assist the 
stomach and intestines in Iheir work. 

If Taste is heeded in its invitation 
and its warnings, that which passes into 
the stomach will be so suitable and 
ready for nourishment of the body that 
the smallest possible quantity will serve 
the purpose and almost no waste will be 
left to tax and disease the lower intes- 
tines, while the absence of fatally inhar- 
monious deposits in the tissue and bone 
will cease to exist in proportion to the 
skill with which one interprets the warn- 
ings of Taste, and in response to the 
care taken in following them, 

DISEASE PREVENTED 

It is said that none of the microbes 
of disease can live an instant, and hence 
cannot propagate, in a perfectly healthy 



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1 62 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

human tissue. It is possible to secure 
the perfectly healthy human tissue, to 
both the generally healthy and to those 
who are afflicted, unless too far gone to 
reform, by keen attention to the direc- 
tion of Taste, and the reward of the 
attention is manifold. The actual pleas- 
ure derived from eating under the direc- 
tion of the method suggested herein 
cannot be equalled by any other means, 
# # # 

While cheerfulness, hopefulness, good 
nature, charity and all the mental good 
qualities are splendid forced-draughts of 
oxygenised impulse that assist the stom- 
ach in consuming and otherwise in 
taking care of any erratic or excessive 
food supply, and are able to help take 
care of a moderate glut of material; 
Taste, if allowed to serve its full pur- 
pose, furnishes its own draught of cheer- 
fulness by means of the very pleasure it 
distributes, and at the same time it 
prevents, instead of inducing, gluttony. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 63 

There are two ways of putting a 
limit to a meal — to eating. One — 
the wrong one — comes in the shape 
of a protest on the part of a too full 
stomach while the appetite is yet raven- 
ous. The right one conjes naturally 
from a perfectly satisfied feeling — a 
ceasing of desire for anything more, 
no matter how previously alluring to the 
palate, before the stomach is overbur- 
dened. The former is evidence of glut, 
or gluttony, and the latter is Nature's 
way, for which there is every desired 
reward. 

SOME EASY EXPERIMENTS 

It is a very easy matter to prove for 
one's self that ample saliva is essential 
to the most economic and perfect diges- 
tion; and also, that no two mouthfuls 
of food require the same quantity. 

Experiment will be doubly interest- 
ing in that it reveals pleasure of taste in 
eating that has not before been enjoyed. 



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1 64 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

The function of saliva in digestion has 
commonly been understood to be the 
lubrication of the food so as to enable it 
to be swallowed. The truth is that it is 
the first and most important solvent 
necessary to digestion, the good offices 
of which are to separate, make alka- 
line, neutralise, saponify, and otherwise 
render the succeeding processes within 
the delicate organs of the body as easy 
as their delicacy requires, and thus not 
to strain and inflame them into fester- 
ing breeding grounds for the myriads of 
microbes of diseases which we are com- 
pelled to draw in with every breath of 
air we inhale. 

Drawn into a perfectly clean and 
healthy organism, some microbes aid and 
are a part of life, but taken into a system 
clogged by dirt and strained by over- 
work, these same harmless creatures be- 
come agents of destruction. Bacilli 
may be either friends or enemies and 
we have the choice. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 65 
NATURAL LIFE LIMIT 

It IS said that the natural life of all 
animals, left to pursue a natural exist- 
ence by being protected from the ene- 
mies of their species, and in reach of 
sufficient nourishment, is six times the 
growing period. If this is so no man 
need die or move his soul to another 
habitation until he has occupied the 
present one for from one hundred and 
ten to one hundred and forty years. If 
the proper use of the instincts and 
senses be conserved in children, the 
growing period may be prolonged to 
probably twenty-five years with a re- 
sultant tenure of life of one hundred 
and fifty years. 

I have personally interviewed a patri- 
arch, who, at sixty-five, was awaiting 
death with constant expectancy, and 
was helping to attain it by every sort 
of favourable suggestion. It happened 
that he had his portrait taken in a pho- 
tograph gallery on his sixty-fifth birth- 



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I66 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

day as a last souvenir to be distributed 
among his friends. Shortly after that, 
in the fruity and salubrious foothills 
of the Pacific Coast of California, he 
met with accidental suggestion which 
changed his habits of living, and, very 
soon, his attitude toward life and death. 
I sat with the patriarch on his one 
hundredth birthday in the same photo- 
graph gallery, examined the portraits of 
sixty-five and one hundred years, con- 
versed with the subject in a low tone 
of voice, looked upon a man who felt 
that he was yet in middle life, and in 
possession of an enjoyment of life that 
he said had never been equalled in the 
early years of his bondage to the igno- 
rance and impatience of youth.^ 



STUDY NATURE 

Watch good Nature, observe her 
methods, try to imitate them by way 
of experiment, and you will find that, 

* The rejuvenated patriarch is still alive in 1903. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 67 

as heretofore stated, there is a perfect 
way enfolded in all of Nature's problems 
and that man has only to discover the 
way to have it freely accessible to him. 

Watch a child take its nourishment 
in natural mannen The sucking action 
is like the act of mastication in that it 
excites the glands which supply fluids to 
the mouth. Whatever number of these 
fluids there may be, I will class them all 
as saliva. Certainly in the case of milk 
being taken into the stomach, saliva is 
not needed to lubricate it. It is, there- 
fore, reasonable to suppose that saliva 
is intended as a part of the mixture 
necessary to digestion; that is, to the 
conversion of the food into nutriment. 

In the case of children nourished at 
the breast of the mother — the only 
natural way — the food is already alka- 
line and ready for digestion in the 
stomach and intestines as related pre- 
viously. 

Remember also that, in the case of 
invalids with very weak stomachs, phy- 



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1 68 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

sicians recommend taking milk and 
broth through a straw or through a 
glass tube. Taking fluid this way re- 
quires a sucking action of the mouth 
and thereby induces a flow of saliva. 
Of course^ the fluid is better digested 
than when drunk because Nature's way 
has been followed, and it is no wonder 
that milk and often soups of different 
kinds are indigestible, if taken contrary 
to the natural way, except in digestive 
systems which have not yet exhausted 
their ten-horse-power resistance capacity. 
I have tried milk and soups upon 
a stomach trained down so fine that 
it was like a pair of apothecary's bal- 
ances, sensitive to the least inharmony, 
to find that if they are drunk there is 
a mild protest — a sort of a shrug of 
the shoulders, as it were — and that 
when the same liquids have been moved 
about in the mouth for the time, neces- 
sary to naturally excite the Swallowing 
Impulse, they have passed into the 
stomach without the owner being con- 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 169 

scious afterwards of their presence ex- 
cept by feeling of complete satisfaction. 

It would seem, therefore, that the 
perfection of nutrition requires the 
proper mixture of saliva added to all 
food substances, and that mastication 
is not only a means of separation in 
order to give saliva a chance but a 
valve opener for salivary glands in order 
to make the proper solution for the 
stomach; and, that taste exists, in one 
of its important functions, to indicate 
how long the process should continue 
and when it has effected its healthful 
purpose. 

Any one who tries it, no matter how 
perverted the taste has become by 
abuse, will find that Nature is not only 
kind but alluring. Meat or bread, with- 
out sauces or butter, are tasteless, in a 
degree, when first taken into the mouth 
dry. It is for this reason that butter, 
sauces, salt, sugar, etc., are used to 
make them what is called palatable. 
It is the salt or the sugar or other 



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I70 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

spices in these which excites the palate 
immediately when the dry morsel would 
not do so in such marked degree. 

If you take the meat or the dry bread 
and masticate sufficiently, allowing the 
nutriment to become thoroughly solved 
by the saliva and separated from the 
dirt, — the indigestible, tasteless re- 
mainder — the taste will become more 
and more delicious as the saliva gets 
possession of the solution, and will have 
a final delicacy which sauces cannot 
equal, as a reward for pursuing Nature's 
invitation and rendering her the ap- 
pointed service. 

An easy experiment that will prove 
the above statement to be correct is to 
take a variety of breads, white and 
brown, toasted and untoasted, crust and 
soft, and afterwards some of the same 
soaked in soup or milk, or, in the juice 
of whateve/ meat you happen to have 
at your meal. 

Taken dry, toast will only reduce and 
disappear, without efifort of swallowing, 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 171 

into the stomach, leaving no tasteless 
dregs behind, after about thirty actions 
of the jaw. This is probably the reason 
why toast is an invalid's best diet; 
because mastication is required to crush 
it, saliva is liberated by the acts of 
mastication, less saliva is required to 
prepare toast for the stomach than any 
other form of bread, and therefore, the 
proper conditions are attained perforce^ 
and easy digestion is promoted. Crust 
of French bread will do the same by 
means of about forty jets let loose by 
mastication; the soft inside of French 
bread will require fifty, or more; crust 
and inside of biscuits and of "home- 
made" bread somewhat more than the 
French bread ; while " Boston brown 
bread " requires as many as seventy to 
eighty jets turned on by action of mas- 
tication to dissolve it. 

The above refers to moderate mouth- 
fuls. The process is incomplete until 
all is dissolved, taste ceases, and natural 
swallowing occurs. 



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172 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

Will it not be observed that mastica- 
tion, as far as crushing or mangling is 
concerned, has small part in the reduc- 
tion of ** Boston brown bread," and little 
seeming use except to turn on the jets 
of the solving saliva, for the material 
itself is soft, and sometimes " mushy " ? 
Saliva has little use as a lubricant in 
this case, for the reason that the brown 
bread experimented with can be easily 
swallowed when first taken in the mouth. 
Abundant experiment has been made by 
those to whom " Boston brown bread " 
was formerly little less than a poison, to 
prove the assertion that, sufficiently 
mixed with saliva, it is perfectly digesti- 
ble and that the delicious taste of the 
bread after forty or fifty bites (J to ^ 
minute) gets sweeter and sweeter, apd 
attains its greatest sweetness and most 
delicate taste at the very last, when it 
has dissolved into liquid form and most 
of it has escaped into the stomach. 

It will be noticed that the time, or 
attention, required to solve these differ- 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 73 

ent problems of nutrition as embodied 
in dififerent sorts of breads is exactly 
proportionate to their recognised diges- 
tibility, and explains the reason why hot 
and "soggy" biscuits, after the Ameri- 
can fashion, and " Boston brown bread " 
have been classed as not easily digestible. 

Still further proof of my contention 
in favour of the importance of taste as a 
guide and guard in the process of nutri- 
tion is that, if you soak soft bread, or 
even toast, in the juice or gravy of any 
meat, the number of masticatory or 
tasting movements necessary to fit it 
for the stomach and satisfy the taste 
will be about the number required to 
masticate raw meat from which the 
juice has come and not such only as 
would seem requisite on account of the 
softness of the substance when made 
pulpy by soaking and which might be 
forcibly swallowed at once. 

Tests like these alone are sufficient 
to prove my contention, but, when the 
result of the experiments is so immedi- 



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174 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

ate for good in every direction, as it has 
proved itself to be in all cases tried, 
there is no longer doubt but that Na- 
ture's most important secret relative to 
human alimentation has been heretofore 
practically undiscovered ; that is, as far 
as any inquiry I have been able to 
make sheds light upon the subject. 

The result, in all the cases of my 
observation, has been an immediate re- 
sponse of naturally increased energy; 
approach of weight toward the normal, 
whether the subject was over-weight or 
under-weight ; a great falling ofif of the 
waste to be discharged by the avenue of 
the lower intestines and also through 
the kidneys; relief of bleeding hemor- 
rhoids and catarrh — the diseases suf- 
fered by the patients; emancipation 
from headaches ; clearing of the tongue 
of the yellow deposit — usually called 
fur — that is an indication of rotten 
conditions in the stomach; and return 
of the energy for work which all men 
and women should have, and which 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 75 

finds expression in healthy children in 
the form of great energy for play. 

The tax upon the lower intestines 
has been, in my experiments, reduced 
so that there was no invitation to relief 
more frequently than once in four or 
five days, and the quantity of the deposit 
was less than half the quantity of a 
usual daily contribution to waste under 
former methods of taking in nourish- 
ment, thereby proving the fact that 
appetite and taste, when given full 
chance to serve, serve us well. 

This feature (quantity of waste) dif- 
fered in the cases of the different per- 
sons experimented with according to 
the carefulness with which they obeyed 
the test injunctions. In some, greed 
abnormality could not quickly be over- 
come, but, as the subjects were selected in 
part from the stratum of society where 
want is the constant dread, it is not to 
be wondered at that a lifetime habit of 
tremor and greed should resist even the 
dictates of their reason. But it was in 



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176 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

these that the revelation excited the high- 
est appreciation at last when they were 
put in possession of faculties and strength 
that they had supposed the Creator had 
denied them in a world of suffering. 

There is no doubt but that it is pos- 
«ble to introduce nutrition into the 
system wherein, or rather wherewith, 
there is little or no waste material. 

One physician, to whom I applied 
for information, suggested that too fine 
an application of my method might 
finally do away with the lower intestines 
altogether from the same cause that any 
unused member of the body, and also 
unnourished members, shrivel and dis- 
appear in time. 

While this is possible, the means 
taken towards it are productive of mar- 
vellous good results ; and, if there were 
no further use, what purpose would they 
serve ?^ 

^ Dr. George Monks of Boston, Massacbnsetts, 
has recently called the attention of the author to the 
fact that the length of the intestines in man have been 
known to vary from nine feet to twentyonine feet 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 77 

Think of the number of separate com- 
plaints that are attributable to trouble of 
the lower intestines, and think of the 
relief coming with their return to nor- 
mal conditions in performing infrequent 
service with the ease of rejuvenated 
strength! Such was the case with all 
of the subjects under test, and it was a 
revelation which was sis the opening of 
a new life to even those who had suf- 
fered least, and had thought themselves 
fortunate as to health conditions. 

I hope I will be excused for using 
the terms "dirt," "rotten," "glutton," 
etc. I know they will give a shock to 

In the longer ones the papilla convenenti which serve 
for absorption and which line the inside of the intes- 
tines extended only part way down the channel, but in 
the shorter ones they lined the channel throughout its 
entire length, giving inferential evidence that the strain 
of continued excess of waste material had lengthened 
the intestines for the sole purpose of providing storage 
room for the waste. Metchnikoff, the head of the Pas- 
teur Institute, Paris, has even proposed removing some 
eighteen feet of intestine by surgical operation, in- 
cluding the troublesome vermiform appendix, as being 
unnecessary in connection with cooking and the preva- 
lence of partly predigested foods. 



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178 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

sensitive conventionality, but is it not 
better to shock conventionality with a 
proscribed term, if it means just what it 
says, and nothing else, than to shock 
the delicate organism of our machinery 
of life by throwing dirt into its furnace 
with good fuel, and thereby allowing the 
glut of ashes therefrom to encumber the 
journals of our mechanism, to the waste 
of our power and to the wearing out of 
our machinery? 

# # # 

Disease is nothing but dirt in the 
system and the result of dirt. It is 
our own dirt at that, having been in- 
troduced by our own carelessness or as 
the result of combined ignorance and 
greed. 

Ignorance has excused and does ex- 
cuse the responsibility; but, when we 
have providentially been provided a 
way by Nature to select and sift and 
prepare perfect fuel for the furnace of 
our Life-Power-Plant, there can be no 
further excuse for not following the 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 79 

teaching to the extreme of the last pos- 
sible refinement. 

# # # 

I will not presume to say what and 
whom good Doctor Appetite, with the 
assistance of Doctor Taste, can cure. 
They have both cured and greatly re- 
lieved rheumatism, gout, eczema, obes- 
ity, under-weight, bleeding-piles, blotches 
and pimples, catarrh, "that tired feel- 
ing," muddy complexion, indigestion, 
and yellow-tongue, within four months. 
It has been revealed that attention to 
their invitation and warning cures un- 
natural craving and beautifully appeases 
appetite desires with one-third the usual 
food ; and, at the same time, they teach 
an appreciation and enjoyment of food 
quite new even to bon vivants. 

Any person can employ Dr. Normal 
Appetite and consult Dr. Good Taste 
free of all charge, and make endless 
discoveries in the possibility of delight- 
ful and healthfully economic nutrition. 

The suggestion was originally given 



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l8o THE NEW CLUTTON OR EPICURE 

by the author in crudest form with the 
assurance of physiologists that trial of 
it involved no risk, but, on the contrary, 
that it led in the right direction toward 
preventing disease. I felt that it was too 
important to be withheld from those who 
do not know the existence of Nature's 
perfect way provided by the Senses of 
Appetite and Taste. 

Record of careful tests and results 
will probably follow in another volume. 
The author has entered the field of in- 
vestigation to find deterrents to Nature's 
perfect development and will not rest 
while any remain.^ 

With even the crude hint, that 
health can be secured and maintained by 
consulting and respecting Appetite and 
Taste, each person having either can 
assist in the investigation. 

^ At the present time, five years after this promise 
was made, the author is happy to say that it has been 
faithfully kept and with important results steadily 
accruing. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE iSi 
SUGGESTION AND DIRECTIONS 

For initial experiment, do not change 
any of your present habits of living as to 
time of meals, kind of food, etc. 

Following the directions given here- 
after will undoubtedly lead to just the 
right thing for you in these regards. 

There is no doubt but that the early 
morning meal is not productive of the 
best results in nutrition and strength, 
but it is better to have Appetite sug- 
gest the necessary change in accustomed 
habits. Dr. Dewey ^s advice in the ** No- 
Breakfast'' regimen is excellent. The 
getting-up craving is not an earned 
appetite. 

Forced abstinence from a heavy morn- 
ing meal will surely bring about normal 
conditions of appetite which are best 
adapted to perfect nutrition, so that if 
the invitation to give up the morning 
gorge voluntarily does not overcome 
perverse habit, the heroic denial may 
be tried. 



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1 82 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

The value of the discovery lies in re- 
cognising the fact that Taste still has 
important work to do with passing food 
while yet there is taste, and that what 
remains after Taste ceases to express 
itself should not go into the stomach. 

The ease with which one will learn 
to enjoy and " hang on " to food in the 
mouth, even milk and soup, after he has 
learned a good reason for doing so, will 
quickly create a counter habit which is 
in accordance with Nature's perfect way. 

When one has discovered the delight 
of that last indescribably sweet flash of 
tastCy which Taste offers as a pousse cafe 
to those who serve it with respect, he 
will find any food that Appetite selects 
is needed for his nutrition, and is good. 

Remember this! Salt, sugar, some 
sauces and spices which are used to 
make food palatable may be in them-, 
selves nutritious, but* do not let them 
mislead you. The tendency is to relish 
them and think that they represent the 
food they disguise, which, however, is 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 83 

often only an excuse for them, and has 
very little nutrition itself. In this case a 
morsel of food is taken into the mouth, 
the sauce or spice which it carries meets 
immediate response from Taste and dis- 
appears, whereupon the indigestible food 
morsel is swallowed in indigestible con- 
dition so as to admit another sauce-laden 
supply. 

The most nutritious food does not 
require sauces. It may seem dry and 
tasteless to the first impression, but, as 
the juices of the mouth get possession 
of it, warm it up, solve its life-giving 
qualities out of it and coax it into use- 
fulness, the delight of a new-found deli- 
cacy will greet the discoverer. 

It may be difficult, at first, to avoid 
swallowing food before it is thoroughly 
separated, the nutriment dissolved and 
the dirt rejected, but after a little prac- 
tice there will be no difficulty. On the 
contrary, there will be an involuntary 
habit of retention established that will 
be as tenacious of a morsel of food till 



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lS4 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICXJRE 

that last and sweetest taste has been 
found, as a dog is tenacious of a savory 
bone. 

Did it ever occur to gum chewers 
that the gum is simply an exciter of 
saliva, and that the sweet taste is the 
nutritious dextrin in the saliva and has 
nothing to do with the gum? In the 
ordinary "watering of the mouth" the 
same sweet taste is experienced. 

Another important fact in this con- 
nection, and which belongs in the list 
of "directions" because it is a leader, 
is, that perfect nutrition is a source of 
ample saliva, the effect thereby repro- 
ducing the cause in friendly reciprocity. 

It will be found that, when normal 
conditions have been attained through 
attention to the inspection, selection and 
rejection of Taste, when the tongue has 
lost its malarial yellow scum and when 
Hunger is represented by healthful Ap- 
petite and has dismissed bilious and 
insatiable Craving from its service, there 
will at all times be a delicately sweet 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 185 

taste in the mouth which will prevent 
craving for anything else. For instance, 
a person in possession of normal taste 
conditions may pass a confectionery 
shop or a fruit stand without temp- 
tation to eat of their wares, for they 
would spoil the taste already in posses- 
sion of tl^ mouth. 

The expert wine tasters in Rhine- 
land, where the full flavour of the lus- 
cious fruit is retained in the wine as 
Nature put it there, never drink wine. 
They breathe it into the mouth and 
atomise it on the tongue with utmo^ 
relish. To them the swallowing of the 
precious juice without dissipation by 
taste is an unpardonable sacrilege. The 
Bavarians also, whose beer is the best 
in the world, practically do not drink 
beer as Americans are accustomed to 
seeing it drunk. They sit over a stein 
of beer for an hour, reading or chatting 
with friends. The epicurean^ drinkers 
of what has been termed eau de vie in 
France sit and sip a "pony" of their 



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l86 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

beloved Cognac while they enjoy a view 
of pastoral loveliness or a throng of 
passers-by in a boulevard of Paris. 
None of these people drink anything 
but water and hence are not drunkards ; 
and, at the same time, they have full 
enjoyment of Nature's most stimulating 
and delicious compounds in a form pre- 
served by Nature for the use of man. 

The taste of these students of nutri- 
tion becomes so discriminating that 
they can distinguish a wine or a beer 
or a cognac, as they would distinguish 
between intimate friends and strangers. 
The year, the vineyard, the state of the 
weather, or any accident that may have 
surrounded the development of the 
fruit are as distinguishable to these 
epicures in the essential juices as are 
the marks on men which indicate pros- 
perity, happiness or any stamp of en- 
vironment whatever. 

An epicurean cannot be a glutton. 
There may be gluttons who are less 
gluttonous than other gluttons, but epi- 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 187 

cureanism is like politeness and cleanli- 
ness, and is the certain mark of gentility. 

A physiological chemist, a friend 
of the author, who is responsible for the 
suggestion that the function of saliva 
in turning the starches of our food 
into nutritious glucose may never have 
been fully given a chance to act, thus 
accounts for the last delicate sweet taste 
which is attained by complete mastica- 
tion. It is then a perfect solution, and 
hence the delicacy of the taste. 

For illustration, try a ship's biscuit — 
commonly called hardtack — and keep 
it in the mouth, tasting it as you would 
a piece of sugar, till it has disappeared 
entirely, and note what a treasure of 
delight there is in it. 

Taste will teach the experimenter 
more than I can even suggest. I simply 
offer an introduction to Doctor N. 
Appetite and to Doctor G. Taste and 
state some of their excellences that I have 
discovered through their attentions to 
myself and others under my direction. 



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l88 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

I will, however, give a resume of my 
own experience as a guide. 

PERSONAL CASE, INITIAL CONDITION 

Age, 49 years; height, 5 feet 7 inches* 
Extremes of weight for fifteen years (in 
ordinary clotiiing) minimum, 198 lbs.; 
maximum, 217 lbs. Chest measure, 
varying but little, if any, 42 inches; 
waist measure (tailor's) 43 to 44 inches. 
Usual weight during the tim^, about 
205 lbs. 

My experiments began near the 
TOiddle of June, but with no systematic 
application until the middle of July, 
1898; weight on June ist, probably 
over ao5 Ibs^ in summer clothing. 

SPEEDY IMPROVEMENT 

On OctobCT 10th, as a result of the 
experiments, we%ht 163 lbs., and sta- 
tionary; chest measure same as before, 
but waist measure reduced to 37 inches, 
or one inch below the "tailor's ideal," 
and nearly down to the " athlete's ideal." 



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THE NEW GLUrrON OR EPICURE 1 89 

The energy and desire for activity 
with immunity from fatigue, which was 
the characteristic equipment of twenty 
years ago returned, but not, of course, 
the trained muscular strength or supple- 
ness of athletic days. 

The food invited by Appetite at this 
stage, the nutriment in which counter- 
balanced the waste in each twenty-four 
hours, consisted of about thirty ordinary 
mouthfuls of potato, bread, meat, or 
anything selected by Appetite, masti- 
cated and manipulated to the end. 

One meal a day was taken for con- 
venience, and because it seemed, under 
the then existing circumstances, hot 
summer weather, to be the time set by 
Nature for eating. " I rise in the morn- 
ing," as a champion pugilist once put it, 
" when my bed gets tired of me," which 
at the time was usually before, or at, 
daylight, and began writing or other 
work. By one o'clock I usually was 
"worked out," but had already disposed 
of practically a day's work. Then, in 



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t90 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

the middle of the day, when all the 
animals rest and some of them chew 
the cud, I took my meal. I had not, 
meantime, experienced a moment of 
craving for anything since the meal of 
the day before, but I sat down with an 
epicurean appetite. 

The article of food on the menu that 
first attracted me, I fixed my desire 
upon. At the time it was usually a 
meat or a fish, and there accompanied 
it only a cup of coffee, nine-tenths milk, 
bread and butter, and potato* Some- 
times the meat selected was an entree^ 
and Ivas garnished with rice and other 
fruits oi" vegetables. 

About thirty mouthfuls of these, dis- 
posed of in something less than twenty- 
five hundred acts erf mastication or othei- 
movement of the mouthy and taking 
about thirty minutes to thirty-five min- 
utesi satisfied the appetite so perfectly 
that all the ices and desserts on a 
sumptuous bill of fare had no attraction. 

In the meantime, water was drunk, 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 191 

in small portions slowly, and ice water 
at that, without restriction, to satisfy 
thirst, but not when any food was in 
process. In the mouth the water was 
almost instantly brought to body-tem- 
perature and its coolness was very agree- 
able to all the senses. I now rarely 
take any water except in very hot weather 
when perspiration is active and then 
only enough to quench thirst, excess 
giving discomfort and necessitating 
more perspiration. Water injures diges- 
tion by being taken with meals only be- 
cause it is used to wash down food not 
yet prepared for the stomach. It is the 
unfit food that is carried down by it and 
not the water that does the harm. 

One cup of cafe au laity well sweet- 
ened, sipped and enjoyed according to 
the epicurean method, satisfied all de- 
sire for other sweets and created a har- 
mony of variety that was simply perfect, 
while it was perfectly simple. 

I did not try to work, or think, for 
some time after the meal ; that is, I did 



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192 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

not force thought; but reading, a cat 
nap, a walk, a matinee, a ball game, or a 
ride in a trolley car were recreations 
which I was able to enjoy as a sort of 
pousse cafe for two or three hours after 
the meal, and then the energy for work 
returned, so that if there were something 
yet to be done in the time before the 
accustomed bed hour, another day's 
work was easily accomplished. 

Athletic work, physical labour, ex- 
treme activity in any form, all benefit by 
the same treatment, as I have since been 
able to prove both personally and by 
experiment with others. The only dif- 
ference is the greater waste of tissue, 
and the greater need for restorage, de- 
manding an evening meal and possibly 
an earlier midday meal. 

Exercise, work, activity — anything 
that creates a demand for nutriment is 
the especial friend of Taste. It gives 
healthy appetite and hence there is 
plenty for Taste to do and he likes to 
be of service. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 93 

At first, rules have to be followed in 
order to serve Economic Nutrition to the 
best advantage, but they soon become 
habits of life, or living, that will naturally 
come of themselves from attention to 
Taste according to these directions. 

It has been our experience, that if 
there are any diseases growing out of 
overstraining of the lower intestines, kid- 
neys, liver, etc., they will soon disappear. 

Perfect nutrition does away with the 
waste until there will be no invitation to 
discharge oftener than once in four or 
five days, when the response will be easy 
and final, with less than half the quan- 
tity of an ordinary daily contribution. 

There are wealth, health, strength, 
long life, abundant usefulness and much 
resultant happiness offered as a reward 
for learning and following Nature's Per- 
fect Way. 

When we learn that obeying Nature's 

Laws emancipates us from the slavery to 

cravings of unnatural appetite, releases 

us from constant attention on meals» 

13 



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194 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

does away with at least half the drudgery 
of woman's work and makes us immune 
from the attacks of microbes of disease, 
it is then no hardship to take a few les- 
sons in the Art of Economic Nutrition. 

Every artificial method that has been 
suggested to coax Nature into changing 
her problems to suit man^s poor inter- 
pretation has failed, but Nature has 
been patient withal. Her door to re- 
form is never closed, and her patience 
is boundless towards prodigal and fool- 
ish children. 

Nature has put the keenest of the 
senses at the threshold of life to serve 
both as hosts and servants, but Apprecia- 
tion has heretofore failed to recognise 
their true office, while Ignorance, blinded 
by Greed, has spumed and abused the 
best of servants.* 

^ The "symptoms" in the personal case of the 
author described above persist after five years' test and 
experience. The endurance-test of the half-century 
birthday in France, the observations of Dr. Burnett in 
Washington, and the examinations in the laboratories 
iA Cambridge and Yale all tell the same story of a 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 195 



SQMR PERTINENT QUERIES 

If Nature has revealed a perfect way 
to the easy solution of all of her prob- 
lems, as related to the affairs of animals 
and plant life, WHAT SENSE is there 
in thinking that she has discriminated 
against her Chief Assistant in Cultiva- 
tion, Man ? 

If Nature has provided animals with 
keen discrimination in the matter of 

reformed and increasing efficiency even with five year^ 
oi added age handicap, so that the logic of the advice 
originally given in this book stands proved, so far. I 
^ave had my weight reduced from 217 pounds to 130 
pounds and felt best when lightest. I carry my weight 
at any figure desired, but most of the time carry a 20- 
pound handicap in winter and sometimes in sumn^er 
to calm the fears, of solicitous friends, who think I 
ipust be ill when I am not looking "robust." Ex- 
treme robustness is a great danger to life. A partner 
pi the author in early days in California, several years 
his junior and just in the prime of life and fortune, 
passed away from over-robustness, as have many of 
the world's brightest and best citizens. Sly of the 
author's chums of ten years ago have died because 
of too much robustness and worry. They heeded not. 
The author may fdlow them, any moment, but mean- 
time he is enjoving life as never before* 



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196 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE! 

healthful food, WHAT SENSE is there 
in doubting her good intentions toward 
the highest form of animal in this 
regard ? 

If Taste is the sentinel of the stomach 
and also the purveyor and inspector of 
nutrition, WHAT SENSE is there in 
ascribing to it the lowest place in the 
list of the senses ? 

If we enjoy eating, and are eating, 
partly, for the pleasure of it, WHAT 
SENSE is there in throwing away a 
morsel until the taste has been extracted ? 

If " dirt " is " matter out of place," 
which is the accepted definition, 
WHAT SENSE is there in calling 
unnutritious food by any other name ? 

If taste is the evidence of nutrition, 
and ceases to act upon dirt, WHAT 
SENSE is there in hurrying food past 
the sentry-box of Taste without giving 
the inspector time to select the nutri- 
tion and reject the dirt? 

If the last flash of taste in dealing 
with a morsel of food is the best of all. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 97 

WHAT SENSE in believing that 
Nature did not furnish that allurement 
for the wise purpose of inducing masti- 
cation to the end of taste ? 

If saliva is the medium of Taste, 
without which there is no expression of 
taste, WHAT SENSE is there in 
thinking that it is nothing but a lu- 
bricant, to enable food to be easily 
Swallowed ? 

WHAT SENSE is there in slight- 
ing nutrition in the beginning when we 
know that the derangement of the proc- 
ess will continue throughout all the 
involuntary stages within the digestive 
organs, inviting disease and causing 
suffering? 

THERE IS SENSE in carefully 
attending to the voluntary preparation 
of the food for the stomach, so that the 
involuntary functions of digestion and 
of assimilation may be performed with 
natural ease and freedom, thereby defy- 
ing and preventing disease! 

If we can save two-thirds of present 



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198 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

consumption and yet furnish all that Is 
necessary for perfect nutrition, WHAT 
SENSE is there in wearing out our 
Mind-Power Plant with a glut of 
surplus ? 

Unless a person has a pressing en- 
gagement with his own funeral, WHAT 
SENSE is there in hurrying with his 
meals ? 

If we can devote ten thousand actions 
of the j.aw, daily, to senseless or vicious 
gossip, WHAT SENSE is there in 
denying adequate jaw service to the 
most important function of living? 

WHAT SENSE is there in a rich 
person glutting his Mind-Power Plant 
with more food-fuel than it needs, just 
because h$ happens to have a» abun- 
dance to glut with, or glut on ? 

WHAT SENSE is there in calling 
any glutton ** a gentleman " ? 

WHAT SENSE is there in calling 
any glutton " a lady " ? 

If what Taste rejects, after having 
selected nutriment out of a morsel of 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 1 99 

food is dirt, WHAT SENSE is there 
in allowing it to contaminate and bur- 
den the delicate organs of digestion ? 

An indigestible morsel of food is like 
a runaway team in a crowded street 
WHAT SENSE is there, then, in de- 
moralising things in the thoroughfare 
of our life organism by admitting unruly 
substance ? 

An indigestible morsel of food in the 
stomach, and all the way through the 
intestines, is like a ''bull in a china 
shop." WHAT SENSE is there, 
then, in smashing the delicate utensils 
in the laboratory of our Mind-Power 
Plant by rushing '' bulls '' past Sentinel 
Taste? 

A SCIENTIFIC POINT 

Physiological Chemistry declares that 
an important function of saliva is turn- 
ing the starch of foods into dextrose — 
sugar — which is one of the high forms 
di nutrition. 



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200 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

An eminent physiological chemist, 
who is a friend of the author, and who 
has been experimenting with the sug- 
gestions offered by the discovery of 
new uses for Taste in securing perfect 
economic* nutrition, says that the inex- 
pressibly sweet flavour which comes 
with the last expression of Taste in 
connection with a morsel of food, es- 
pecially dry breads, which are largely 
starch, is evidence of perfect conversion 
of the starch to sugar by the action of 
the saliva. 

The sweet taste spoken of begins to 
be apparent in dry French bread after 
about twenty movements of the mouth, 
and increases until the whole morsel is 
dissolved and disappears into the stom- 
ach, leaving behind it a most delicious 
after-flavour. According to the quantity 
in the mouthful this process will take 
from fifty to one hundred movements 
of the mouth and require from half a 
minute to one minute. 

In this connection remember, please, 



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THE NEW GLXnrON OR EPICURE 20I 

that if you bolt a whole slice, or a whole 
loaf of bread in the meantime, as soon 
as it is wet enough to swallow, you will 
get little, if any, more nutriment out of 
it, and none of the exquisite taste that 
Nature's way offers as an allurement for 
obeying her beneficent demands. The 
way of Nature is the epicurean way; 
the other way is nothing less than pig- 
gish gluttony. 

Even if time for eating is limited, 
nothing is gained by bolting food. 
Thirty mouthfuls of bread thoroughly 
dissolved in the mouth will supply nu- 
triment for a strong man for twenty-four 
hours, and the eating of it in the way 
recommended will give pleasure un- 
known in hurry. 

My physiological chemist friend as- 
sures me that I am right in asserting 
that man should not drink anything but 
pure water, and that for the purpose of 
quenching thirst. If anything is good 
enough to drink at all it is too good to 
waste on an unwilling stomach when 



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202 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

grateful and hungry taste-buds are eager 
for it 

Don't drink soup I Don't drink milk ! 
Don't drink beer I Don't drink wine! 
Don't drink syruped sodas for the taste 
of the syrups ! Sip everything that has 
taste so that Taste can inspect it and 
get the good out of it for you ! 

taste's appeal 

Water has no taste, therefore, Taste 
does not call it to a halt, but says, " Go 
right on and do your work, there is 
nothing ift you that I can improve; 
thank you for giving me a freshening 
up in passing. If people only knew 
what you and I know they would be 
wiser, would n't they? They would 
learn a thing or two about keeping their 
Mind-Power Plant in fine order and get 
rid of all their physical ailments, and be 
strong and happy, and live to be a hun- 
dred and fifty years of age with their 
faculties unimpaired. I say i you are on 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 203 

the outside and can give people a hint ; 
why don't you tell them what I am here 
for I They set me down for a * capper/ 
like one of those fellows that stand out- 
side of cheap restaurants and invite pas- 
sers to come in and eat. They don't 
know I am an expert in nutriment and 
can protect theni from any harm in eat- 
ing. I offer them also a first-class bonbon 
taste, at the finish of my work to induce 
them to stay by and help itie to db 
proper work, but they are all in such & 
blamed hurry that they never wait for 
the bonbon^ and the result is that loads of 
dirt and indigestible stuff get by me and 
make endless mischief in the machine, 
I hear about it often enough you may 
be sure. All the sewer gas the indiges- 
tion produces comes back this way, spoils 
my comfort, and dulls my strength. You 
see, you can have a chance, perhaps, to 
learn for yourself and tell the people 
what I can do for them. I 'm lodged in 
here in the dark where they can't see me 
and I have no means of informing them. 



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204 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

" I wonder why it is that Mother 
Nature makes such a mystery of her 
blessings. She never advertises and 
never exhibits her best things plainly. 
All her precious metals are hidden away 
in narrow seams in the ground; her 
pearls are guarded by close-mouthed 
oysters at the bottom of the ocean; 
electricity is as slippery as an eel and 
absolutely invisible; in fact, Nature is 
the most retiring, in her habits, of all 
the expressions of Deity; and, consist- 
ent with herself, she has put me in here, 
in the dark and speechless, provided 
with powers of selection and discrimina- 
tion, which, if understood and made 
thorough use of, will do for man all that 
he can desire. 

" The funny part of it is that the ani- 
mals, other than man, use me instinc- 
tively and live their appointed time; 
while man, in his usual big-headed way, 
centuries and centuries ago, gave me the 
lowest place among the Senses, classed 
my chief agent and assistant. Saliva, as 



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THE NEW GUJTTON OR EPICURE 205 

merely a * pusher * of food into the stom- 
ach, and ever since he has been in too 
much of a hurry to live quick to take 
the time to live long: and that 's what 's 
the matter with the world." * 

^ Thus ended the first edition; but in the revision 
its position has been changed. 



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2o6 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

IMPORTANT CONFIRMATION 
COMMANDANTE CESARE AGNELLI 

Commandante Cesare Agnelli, of His 
Italian Majesty's battle-ship, " Gari- 
baldi," has been an earnest colleague of 
the authors in the Nutrition Study since 
the summer of 1900. Like the authors, 
he received in the course of experimenta- 
tion such personal benefits that the con- 
tinued observations have been a source 
of great pleasure ever since. I take 
from a letter, dated Taranto, Italy, some 
excerpts that are good evidence of the 
caprice of appetite under difiFerent cli- 
matic conditions together with some 
irrelevant matter, quoted for its good 
reading : — 

" What a good, long, friendly letter ! 
If it was your intention to spoil me, it 
certainly proved a success; and I feel 
so much obliged and thank you so 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 207 

much for the interesting description of 
all you saw and did during your absence 
from Venice this summer, 

" You are too good in remembering 
the few words of encouragement I said 
to you when you first spoke to me 
about your experiments. The fact is 
that I have always regretted that my 
assistance in the experiments could not 
be of greater service ; and, really, of us 
two I am the indebted for gratitude for 
the great service your discovery has 
done to me since the lucky day I had 
the pleasure of your acquaintance. 

** My bad luck would not have it to 
allow my ship to go to England for the 
Coronation, though at first she was se- 
lected to be one of the three. Only two 
days ago I met one of our officers who was 
on the ' Carlo Alberto,' and he confirmed 
all that you wrote and all that has been 
printed about the magnificence of the 
naval review at Spithead. 

" I wish now that I were with you, to 
be able to talk about what happened to 



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20S THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICXJRE 

me during this last cruise of ours, in 
relation to observations of nutrition. I 
can only report facts and feelings, and 
you may be able to connect them and 
assign the causes. You know I do not 
usually drink wine, only water ; well, on 
the coast of Africa I had such a distaste 
for the latter that I was compelled to 
take beer to quench thirst, nor could I 
even endure mineral waters. My desire 
for food was quite changed, my physi- 
ological craving dictating to me quite 
plainly, as in a doctor's prescription, 
what I wanted. Even the best fish in 
the Mediterranean did not satisfy me. 
To-day it was eggs and to-morrow it 
was cocoa, but never meat that I felt the 
wish for. But what is a new caprice of 
desire relates to my smoking. I could 
not smoke a single pipe nor a cigar; only 
could I tolerate cigarettes, and those quite 
without pleasure. At Smyrna I almost 
fed on ices and lemonades, but always 
and ever I could ea^ (not drink) my cup 
of cocoa in the morning. The heat on 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 209 

the coast of Africa at Tripoli and Ben 
Ghari was intense, 108** and 1 10° Fah- 
renheit, with perspiration in proportion. 

" So it seems to me that appetite is 
changed to suit latitude or climatic 
conditions, and all that we call our 
exotic pleasures of appetite, such as 
smoking, etc., are dependent on our 
nutrition. Anyhow, even in the hottest 
days, my strength never gave way, and 
I never felt that lassitude and general 
unfitness for work that was my com- 
panion in past years in hot climates, as 
in the West Indies in '86 and '87. 

" I never miss an opportunity to 
spread the virtues of mastication, but 
most people are too indifferent to apply 
the practice long enough to get the habit 
established as we have acquired it. 

** The first part of our cruise brought 
a great deal of suffering to those who 
are not assisted by a proper discrimina- 
tion in nutrition. There was a scant 
supply of good food, and the bad food 
was very bad. I managed to get the 
14 



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2IO THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

best out of it with the assistance of 
my curious appetite, and did not suffer 
inconvenience as did the others. But 
we were largely rewarded in Turkish 
Asia, — a really blessed part of the 
world, — and especially at Smyrna. My 
day began in the bazaar and ended 
there, my eyes enjoying Turkish and 
Persian art in all their manifestations, 
from the rich Bokhara and Khorassan 
carpets to the Damaseo inlaid works, 
Rhodes embroideries, and so on. One 
sees that art has come from the East, 
and in every branch of it the influence 
of the meridian is always discovered 
and perceived. My great regret was 
not to be able to take it all away with 
me to Venice and divide it with my 
esteemed friends there for our mu- 
tual enjoyment. Curiously enough, at 
Smyrna I found a good bit of Italian 
pottery that I secured for almost noth- 
ing. It would have been a great thing 
if you could have been there to pass 
those ten days in Smyrna with me. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 211 

" I gave an order for some carpets 
to be made on measure, but it will take 
months to have them ready. Many 
people do not appreciate the old car- 
pets, but to my taste niodern ones do 
not have the velvety look or the sou- 
plesse and the softness of the old ones. 

" I am sorry circumstances prevented 
my filling your commission. Had Dr. 
Van Someren been there, he is so fond 
of old things, I am sure he would have 
ruined himself. 

" It seems as if we would remain here 
the whole of this month, and then I 
hope for a fortnight's leave to go to 
Venice; and I look forward to the 
pleasure of a long chat together. 

{Signed) " C. Agnelli." 

CLARENCE F. LOW, ESQUIRE 

THE VEGETARIAN TENDENCY CONFIRMED 

The relator of the following experi- 
ence was conversant with the early re- 
searches of the elder author and gave 



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212 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

mastication a trial for a time. He gave 
it too painful attention, as is apt to be 
the case with beginners, and the strain 
made the practice tedious and undoubt- 
edly inhibited the secretion of the digest- 
ive juices, the same as worry and other 
distractions are known to do. After a 
very short trial Mr. Low declared that 
he could not get enough nourishment 
within reasonable time and came to the 
conclusion that much chewing did not 
agree with him although it might with 
others. With the issue of the reports 
of the Cambridge and Yale tests, how- 
ever, the suggestion was given another 
trial, with the result, up to date, as re- 
ported below: 

** I thank you very much for the copy 
of Dr. Kellogg's book, the * Living Tem- 
ple,' just received. I have not had time 
to read it, but in looking over the chap- 
ter headings and knowing Dr. Kellogg's 
worth as an authority on matters of 
foods and diet I know that there is much 
of value for me in the book, I am much 



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THE NEW GLUrrON OR EPICURE 2.13 

interested in that * Chewing Song ' that 
has been dedicated to you by Dr. Kellogg 
and think the idea an excellent one. 

" I have for some time been chewing 
h la Fletcher and find it of great advan- 
tage. It is getting to be automatic and 
is losing its irksomeness. Indeed it 
already seems natural and produces some 
results not * set down in the book/ For 
instance, I have no desire for meats and 
foods which do not lend themselves to 
the Fletcher method. This in itself is a 
great advantage. 

" By the way, I have not eaten meat 
since the 20th of last October (nearly a 
year), and I find I have gained greatly. 
I only desire two meals a day except 
when the exigencies of travel make a 
light breakfast agreeable and desirable. 
By these means I have gained nerve 
force wonderfully and my muscular 
strength and endurance have increased 
so that I walk long distances and climb 
mountains easily. In fact, I do now with 
pleasure and avidity what I could not 



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214 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

formerly do at all. They are the sort of 
things that are supposed to require a 
* strong meat diet ' but which under such 
a diet were impossible to me. Masti- 
cation and thorough mouth-treatment 
seem to allow the appetite to prescribe 
what my body needs and this is the 
essence and substance of your discovery. 
It pleases me very much that Drs. 
Kellogg and Dewey have confirmed 
your researches and find that your claims 
are not over-drawn. They have such 
splendid opportunities to test things 
dietetic and are such open-minded, nat- 
ural-bom altruists that their confirma- 
tion counts for even more than that of 
the very conservative men in Science 
who stand for scientific authority and 
who want a thing thrice proven before 
they give it endorsement. 

" I think my experience will be es- 
pecially comforting to you because of 
my repeated trials and lapses. I can 
see now how important it is for one to 
practise careful mouth-treatment until 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 215 

the habit is acquired and the perform- 
ance becomes automatic. There is no 
doubt in my mind but what there is a 
natural protection given us by nature 
which has been lost by perversion. I 
feel confident that you will get ulti- 
mate credit for the re-establishment of 
a rational habit of eating which, under 
normal conditions of food supply, is a 
protector against premature swallowing 
of food. 

" G has seen the result in me 

and he is dropping meat to a great ex- 
tent and his breakfasts have dwindled 
to a mere fraction of what they formerly 
were. The same is true of M ." 



A FIVE YEARS' LAY EXPERIENCE 

The good fortune of yesterday, 
July 29, 1903, brought a telephone 
message from an old and very dear 
friend who has been impressed with the 
virtues of buccal digestion for the past 



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2l6 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

five years. Five years ago my friend 
was a sick man, past fifty years of age. 
During his youth and early manhood 
he had been an optimist among opti- 
mists, leading a congenial life among 
agreeable friends, with the best the 
world had to offer in the way of recrea- 
tion and fare. His great misfortune 
at the time was indigestion and the 
troubles that accompany indigestion. 
If he drank a small cup of coffee at 
night he could not sleep, and he was 
subject to the constant uncertainty of 
health and frequent recurrence of acute 
diseases that are common to the victims 
of luxury. 

The very ill-health emergency and 
dilemma of my friend led him to catch 
at any stray straw of hope or comfort. 
When we met, some months after the 
beginning of my experiments, he was 
compelled to note a great difference in 
my appearance; the portly and robust 
but heavy, short-winded and unwieldy 
friend of bygone years in sumptuous 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 21 7 

New Orleans had become *• spare " and 
active, and told of improvement in health- 
conditions that seemed almost miracu- 
lous. The still-suffering friend was 
interested to the point of listening and 
trying the remedy. Half as a joke and 
half in earnest the regimen recom- 
mended by me was adopted and carried 
forward far enough to secure some 
noticeable good results. Following up 
these favourable results with continu- 
ance of the regimen brought pro- 
gressive improvement of health and 
increasing conviction of the merits of 
thorough buccal digestion. 

The evidence of physical improve- 
ment resulting from five years' attention 
to buccal thoroughness in the ordinary 
course of an adventurous life is here 
given briefly from memory fresh from 
the telling : 

"You remember the state of health 
I was in when we met here in the 
Waldorf five years ago. The benefit 
of the recovery that I had secured at 



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2l8 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

Sierra Blanca had been gradually lost, 
and I was pretty well down to my last 
legs again. If I had n't been struck by 
the marvellous alteration in your appear- 
ance from what it was when I had seen 
you last, I should have been terribly 
bored by your relation of your experi- 
ence, for I was sick to death of mention 
of cures and diet-regimens of all sorts. 
But you astonished me so by your 
changed appearance, and I was in such 
a hopeless condition, that I thought I 
would give your scheme a trial. Next 
day, my breakfast, which was also my 
lunch, for I was feeling too badly to get 
up earlier, brought me some sweet corn 
as one of the several items I habitually 
ordered. In giving this com thorough 
chewing before swallowing I noticed 
that, while the inside of the corn liquefied 
readily and was quickly swallowed, there 
remained in my mouth a collection of 
the hulls, and these invited the bad 
table-manners of * spitting out.' I re- 
moved this collection of refuse as deli- 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 219 

cately as possible, and, on examination, 
found that it consisted of hard substance 
that I had never noticed before in con- 
nection with cooked sweet corn. This 
set me to thinking. What had I not 
been putting into my stomach all these 
years in my ignorance of the constitu- 
ents of this one kind of common food, 
and what not in other foods that I had 
not yet observed ? 

"In continuing the observation 
further, I discovered that many of the 
foods that I was accustomed to take 
contained hard, insoluble ingredients or 
cottony fibre that got more and more 
cottony and refractory with mastication. 
In trying coffee, my favourite beverage, 
as you told me I might do if I handled 
it rightly in the mouth, I tasted it until 
it was absorbed or swallowed involun- 
tarily just as you told me the expert 
wine-tasters and tea-tasters do. I 
sipped and enjoyed my small cup of 
coffee as I had never done before in my 
life, and knew afterwards that it had not 



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a20 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

hurt me as usual, as no immediate pro- 
test came from the stomach, which 
formerly had been the case. I slept the 
* sleep of the just' that night, and awoke 
in fine form next morning. From that 
day to this I have not been troubled 
with indigestion, and during these five 
years I have not been sick a day or an 
hour or a moment, and have slept like 
a babe. I have n't kept my weight quite 
down where it ought to be for best com- 
fort, but I have supported the burden 
with my general good health and di- 
gestion. My temptations to lapse have 
been enormous, for I have had the good 
fare of two continents thrown at me by 
most enticing invitation, and I have 
run the gantlet of extraordinary menus 
without phasing, with the results I have 
recounted. 

" Do you remember the day of the 
public funeral of General Grant, when 
his tomb on the Riverside Drive — 
Morningside Heights — was dedicated? 
You remember that we had been invited 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 221 

to Mr. H 's to witness the parade 

and take lunch ? How we were caught 
on the wrong side of the procession on 
Fifth Avenue and were hurrying to get 
ahead of the column and across to the 
other side of the Avenue ? Well ! do 
you remember how we puffed and 
blowed when we had run a couple of 
blocks and how we were red in the face 
and nearly knocked up ? We were both 
fat then and short-winded, and we never 
would have been able to get to our 
destination if I had not hypnotised a 
policeman and persuaded him to lead 
us across the Avenue like a pair of 
emergency hospital cases or disorderly 
arrests. 

"Since then you have had your 
experience of recovery as the result 
of your deliberate experiment made for 
a purpose, and I have had mine as 
the result of noting the improvement 
in you, and for all of which I owe 
you my life, whatever that may be 
worth. 



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222 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

" At the time of the great Naval Re- 
view, or something of the sort — I have 
forgotten what — a party of us went to 
the pier of the Southern Pacific Com- 
pany to see the show. There were Ned 

H y and Captain H , and two 

other men, and myself, with four ladies. 
On coming up town we were booked 
for another engagement, the time for 
which had not yet arrived. We were in 
the vicinity of the Hofifman House and 
drifted in there and into the ball-room. 
The floor was most tempting and the 
orchestrion willing. It was too sugges- 
tive a combination for the ladies, who 
were young and fine dancers, and they 
exclaimed with one voice, * Oh, how 
lovely! I wish we might dance.' It 
proved that I was the only dancing-man 
among the men. I had been a dancer 
in my younger days, but I had let up 
on it since' I had become stout. How- 
ever, by way of a joke and to please the 
young ladies, I offered to be a partner. 
My offer was accepted, also as a joke, 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 223 

but the sequel was a surprise. We set 
the orchestrion going on a Waldteufel 
waltz, and I grabbed one of the young 
ladies for a round. Really, I was 
amazed. I danced as easily as I did 
when a youngster, and round and round 
we went. Finally, my partner begged 
for a rest, so I waltzed her to a seat, 
and, excited with the revelation of an 
endurance I did not know I possessed, 
I grabbed the next lady from her seat 
and repeated the tiring-out process as 
easily as in the first attempt There 
were yet two ladies fresh and eager to 
assist in * doing Uncle Nat up,' and I 
repeated the performance with them, 
also, dancing the last to a dead stand- 
still on account of her determined obsti- 
nacy. She had to complete the ' doing 
up ' of the old man, or Age would win 
a battle from Youth, which would never 
do. Well, to make a long story short, 
and to get to the illustration. I was 
warm and ruddy, but I was less fatigued 
than I remember to have been as a 



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i24 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

youngster when I had danced for a long 
time. 

" Since then I have not balked at any 
feat of physical endurance, and I feel 
as young to-day as my white hair will 
let me. I have tried to get my friends 
to chewing their food persistently, and 
have gained many adherents to your 
cause, but I have had to stand an im- 
mense amount of chaffing meanwhile. 

I tried to get Mr. H to chew his 

bread and milk, but he always laughed 
at me, and chaffed me constantly 
when I was with him about my chew- 
ing fad. One man, whom I saw much 
of, and who needed your advice more 
than anybody else, got so sick of the 
subject that when I received a letter 
from you, telling of some new discovery 
and some new triumph of the cause of 
chewing, I would attempt to read it to 
him ; but he would not listen, and per- 
sisted in calling it rot, although he 
knew that I had become a remarkably 
well man, whereas I was formerly a very 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 225 

sick man. Both of these scoffers have 
gone and I am left, as chipper and 
as fit as a fiddle new-strung for the 
niusic of a happy life. If we don't 
catch up with Luigi Cornaro on our 
record it will not be for want of good 
digestion." 

This is a little bit of intimacy that 
the good Baron Randolph Natili will 
not object to offer in evidence in our 
cause ; for no one living has a heart and 
a will to do a favour or spread a benefit 
more than he. Only yesterday he said, 
in a burst of enthusiasm, " How is it pos- 
sible for me to dislike any one, feeling 
the way I do ? I have likes immensely 
stronger than other likes on account 
of similar or closer sympathies, but it 
seems to me now that to really dislike 
any one that the Creator has made, 
or anything that he has created, would 
do violence to the Memory of My 
Mother." 



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226 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 



DR. HIGGINS' CASE AND COMMENT 

'^Dear Mr. Fletcher: 

"You ask me to write you a short 
account of my experiences with economi- 
cal nutrition with comments, and a few 
words about my physical and mental 
history. 

"^^ Previous History: — The best pe- 
riod of health that I can remember in 
my life was that between seventeen and 
twenty-one, during the time I was pre- 
paring for the medical profession. I 
had a small breakfast at about 7.30 a.m. 
and then went up to London to St 
George's Hospital, which was about 
fourteen miles from my home. My 
parents gave me 2/6 for my midday 
meal but I fortunately economised and 
only spent 6d-iod of it on food. After 
finishing my work I usually arrived 
home at 5.30 and had a * meat tea'; 
this allowed me to devote six hours to 
reading. During the whole of this 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 227 

period I was in excellent mental and 
physical condition. I was made house 
surgeon at twenty-one, obtained my de- 
gree in under four years besides obtain- 
ing several valuable prizes. 

"After this I lived in the Hospital 
where three meat meals were provided. 
These I conscientiously ate ' to keep up 
my strength' during the performance 
of my exhausting duties. I consider 
that tiiis period was the commencement 
of my degeneration. I put on twenty- 
four pounds in weight and lost much of 
my mental energy. 

" To condense, as much as possible : 
my strong hereditary tendency to gout 
with the excessive meat eating, the 
hurried eating during some three and 
one-half years at St George's Hos- 
pital, London, and at Addenbrooke's 
Hospital, Cambridge, resulted in con- 
stant suffering from headache, lum- 
bago, rheumatic pains, and all those 
distressing symptoms known under the 
generic name of 'goutiness.' After 



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228 THE NEW GLinrON OR EPICURE 

seven or eight years I weighed two hun- 
dred and twenty-four pounds and com- 
plained of increasing symptoms of gout. 

I then became a patient of Dr. H , 

of London, whose system requires one to 
abstain from meat, fish, poultry, beans, 
tea, coffee, in other words, from foods 
containing uric acid or its equivalent. 
For about five years, till the end of 1901, 
when I first met you, I fluctuated con- 
siderably in health, on the whole I am 
bound to say, in a steadily downward 
direction, till I was overloaded with the 
excessive weight of two hundred and 
eighty-two pounds. 

" History of Period of Regeneration : 
— I commenced under your advice, mas- 
ticating my food thoroughly at the end 
of December, 1901. After practising 
this method till the present date Sep- 
tember, 1903, I have lost one hundred 
and four pounds in weight and consider 
that I have gained very considerably 
in mental and physical fitness. I pre- 
fer to divide this period into two parts: 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 229 

(a) The first eight months. During this 
time I followed my appetite, but with a 
strong mental bias in favour of keeping 
up as nearly as possible to the daily 
•physiological ration' of nitrogenous 
food. I lost notwithstanding some 
sixty-four pounds in weight in spite of 
having an inordinate appetite for butter, 
and generally taking two pints of milk 
daily. During this period I undertook 
some very severe work in the Labora- 
tory of Physiological Chemistry, with 
the object of trying to devise some 
method of measuring the extent of a 
person's departure from their optimum 
health. This led almost unconsciously 
to a stronger mental bias in favour of 
prescribing the amount of food one 
should eat, and to a certain number of 
experiments in feeding. Towards the 
end of this period I got rather exhausted 
in consequence of my severe work and 
complained of occasional headaches. 
Following the suggestions of some 
friends I added fifty grams of casein to 



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230 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

my daUy diet for two or three weeks. 
This was followed by a return of rheu- 
matism and considerable sickness and 
inability to work, {b) The subsequent 
six months. I resolved to devote this 
period to a careful study of my desires 
for food — to take no notes — to make 
no experiments — in short, to allow my 
body to run itself, and to try to make 
my brain interpret the wants of the 
body. I had moved for the purpose of 
this experiment into a small house, with 
a boy and a woman who came daily to 
clean the house — (I mention these de- 
tails because practically one finds that a 
woman has usually such quick sympathy 
about matters concerning food, that 
their agitation and fears are enough in 
themselves to cause you to modify your 
diet). I only kept bread, butter, and 
milk in the house, all other foods I was 
obliged to send for, and if I required a 
dish to be cooked, I first learned how to 
do it myself and then taught the boy. 
I had no fixed times for meals, and did 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 231 

not have a table laid, my food always 
being brought up on a tray; usually I 
did not interrupt the work I was doing. 
I deliberately adopted all these pre- 
cautions because I had become aware 
by experience of the extraordinary in- 
fluence suggestion, and other mind 
influences, such as habit, had in one's 
selection of food and the amount one 
ate. During the first two months in 
conscientiously eating what I wished, 
as much of it as I wanted and when my 
appetite demanded food, my desires were 
very irregular, ranging over meats and 
fish, (occasionally) chocolate, sweets, 
cream, cheese, butter, milk, bread, pota- 
toes, oranges, bananas, sugar, etc., but 
during the final period my desires were 
much more simple and regular, confin- 
ing themselves to bread, Gruyere cheese, 
butter, cream, bananas, potatoes, occa- 
sionally milk. During and subsequent 
to this period I have become convinced 
that provided you eat your food slowly 
and follow your appetite, without guid- 



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232 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

ance from any other knowledge what- 
ever, one gets marked preferences for 
simple foods with increasing health and 
happiness, the contentment that comes 
from the inestimably valuable possession 
of simple desires. 

^Comments on the System: — The 
great attraction the system has for me 
is its frank admission that: (i) One 
knows practically nothing of those 
chemical processes that occur during 
digestion. (2) The guidance for the 
conduct of life afforded by such vague 
phrases as * the collective wisdom of 
mankind ' leave one on the most super- 
ficial examination in a state of great 
doubt, to say the least of it. (3) The 
guidance afforded by the dogmas of 
science are open to the most disquiet- 
ing criticism, {a) In the prescription 
of method without a knowledge of the 
mysteries of digestion, (b) In those 
observations on insufficient standards 
of mental and physical optimum effi- 
ciency, and of short periods of observa- 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 233 

tion based solely on nitrogenous equilib- 
rium and output of work that you have 
already shown to be fallacious and 
variable, (c) In short, that one can say 
that none of the physiological dogmas 
based on chemistry are not open to 
criticism. 

" If this is admitted, and the choice 
of the quantity and quality of food 
thrown on taste and appetite, we are 
at once provided with a natural means 
of ascertaining the body's actual wants 
from day to day. The phenomena that 
have resulted from the more thorough 
insalivation and mastication of food can 
only be described as remarkable and of 
the highest importance for the progress 
of that most important of all sciences, 
the right conduct of life. The great 
advantage of finely dividing the food in 
the mouth so as to present as large a 
surface as possible for the action of the 
intestinal juices, is obvious when one 
reflects on the rapidity with which bac- 
teria can and do act on pieces having 



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234 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

a smaller area in consequence of their 
larger bulk. When one reflects that 
Dr. Mott attributes the main cause 
of insanity to the absorption by the 
body of the cleavage products pro- 
duced by microbes in the intestines, 
and the increasing recognition of such 
poisons in the causation of chronic 
disease and disturbances of health, 
this factor alone would afford an ex- 
planation of some of the phenomena 
induced by the practice of economical 
nutrition. 

" A method having the results that 
this has it need scarcely be said is revolu- 
tionary; all one's preconceived notions 
of the conduct of life are found to 
be based on grounds open to grave 
criticism and it throws a great re- 
sponsibility on all those concerned in 
its study to endeavour by all the means 
in their power to present a more 
completely demonstrated and unan- 
swerable case to those who are re- 
sponsible for the world's guidance in 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 235 

these matters, with as little delay as 
possible, 

" Yours faithfully, 
" Hubert Higgins, M. A. Cantab. 
M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 

''Late House Surgeon to St. George's Hospital, 
London, and the Addenbrooke*s Hospital, Cam- 
lMri(%e. Demonstrator of Anatomy to the Um- 
▼ersitj of Cambridge and Assistant Snigeon to 
Addenbrooke's Hospital." 



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2^6 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 



QUARANTINE 

THE NECESSITY OF PROTECTION 

Note : A paper, read before members of the Unity 
League and other guests of Mr. and Mrs. William S. 
Harbert, at Tre-Brah, Williams Bay, Geneva Lake, 
Wisconsin, in August, 1898. 

It is pertinent to the subject of this book, but was 
written when the investigations described herein were 
just beginning. 

Progress of Civilisation is accel- 
erated by constantly extending systems 
of individual, moral, social and sanitary 
quarantine. 

It is not what man adds, for he can 
add nothing, but what he prevents, that 
aids growth. 

Man creates nothing, but he assists 
Creation by removing deterrents to 
growth. Growth is spontaneous, con- 
stant and ever stronger if obstructions 
are removed. Creation does a// the 
growings but cultivates nothing; the 
seed falling upon good soil or upon 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 237 

stony waste without other direction 
than that given by the caprice of the 
winds. 

On the other hand, Man is the only 
cultivator in Nature, and at the same 
time he can add nothing to growth — to 
Creation, 

Visible, or conscious, growth consists 
of celi building or thought producing. 
Man never has created a cell, neither 
has he been able to determine the origin 
of a thought; yet, he is a necessary 
factor in evolution and a prime factor in 
cultivation, which is civilisation. 

Man removes deterrents to growth. 
Nature **does the rest." 

Thought and cell creation are spon- 
taneous and are never-ceasing if all ob- 
structions are removed from about them. 
Civilised man places a quarantine against 
the enemies of growth, of progress, and 
of harmony, and thereby promotes 
civilisation. 

Man is, therefore, the Chief Assistant 
to Creation, the Architect of Civilisation 



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238 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

and a Full Partner with Nature in 
Evolution. 

This distinction, adequately appre- 
ciated, lifts Man above the animal plane 
and gives him a place among the gods ; 
his material form, composed of muscle, 
hands, powers of locomotion and speech, 
being but tools with which to harness 
and cooperate with the other forces in 
Nature, under the direction of the god- 
like attribute of the Mind, in the removal 
of deterrents to free growth, and the 
cultivation of that Harmony which is 
the symbol of God. 

# # # 

Having assumed as an hypothesis 
that Man is Full Partner with Nature 
in Evolution; and having discovered 
his proper function in the " Division of 
Labour " in Nature, it is time for each of 
us to analyse the conditions which en- 
viron us as Man units, select those which 
seem to be useful to our scheme of con- 
struction and harmony, declare all deter- 
rents to the growth of our selection to 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 239 

be weeds, and then proceed to remove 
them without delay, first, by pulling 
those which now exist, and following 
that by establishing strict quarantine 
against them. 

# # # 

I can teach only that which I have 
learned, and pronounce good only that 
which has led to happiness. I will 
therefore note the progress of my own 
discoveries and describe those which 
have brought increasing happiness, in 
order that they may serve as beacons 
and monuments to such as may seek 
the same goal along the same lines of 
inquiry. 

The first forty-five years of my present 
life were spent in seeking happiness by 
means of personal accumulation. Money, 
friends, distinction, acquaintance with 
art in all its various expressions, lands, 
luxurious homes in favoured localities, 
pictures, rare porcelains, lacquers and 
other possessions, isolated for my own 
use, and for the enjoyment of chosen 



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240 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

friends, seemed to be the necessary de- 
siderata 6£ happiness. 

In turn, all of these came to me in 
sufficient abundance to give, at least, a 
taste of their quality and their efficacy 
in promoting happiness; but, in the 
midst of them were always obstructions 
to unhampered enjoyment, increasing 
with possession and accumulation of the 
coveted means, and constantly mocking, 
as with a mirage, the ultimate ideal 
desired. 

During these forty-five years of quest 
of happiness there were constantly ap- 
pearing above the horizon of my search 
flashes of hope, leading in new direc- 
tions, which proved in turn to be but 
will o' the wisps, until the night ^ — the 
morning — of my awakening, as related 
in my book " Menticulture." 

It was then, for the first time, I heard 
that it was possible to get rid of anger 
and worry, the betes noires of my exist- 
ence, which were, as I then believed and 
as I now know, the dreaded barriers 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 241 

between me and perfect happiness ; not 
because the mere removal of these par- 
ticular deterrents to happiness will ac- 
complish happiness, but because the 
certain result of the removal of any 
principal mental obstructions leads to 
the disappearance of contingent errors, 
and permits freedom of growth of the 
elements of true happiness. 
# # # 

It is proper to state here the defini- 
tion of happiness which is the result of 
my progressive quest. There is only one 
quality of true happiness, as there can 
only be one kind of quarantine, and the 
former is dependent on the latter. If 
both are not perfect, both fail. True 
happiness is tke evidence and fruit of 
conscious usefulness, and quarantine 
against obstructions to normal altruistic 
energy is the best means of attaining 
happiness. 

In view of the establishment of 

the status of the Man unit in the 

Nature- Man partnership, the above defi- 
16 



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242 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

nition and assertion may be extended 
to declare that there can be no genuine 
happiness short of usefulness in assist- 
ing other units to be strong and useful 
in the partnership of which each is a 
member. 

True happiness cannot exist if there 
is present an element of indifference. 

Next to destructive aggression, in- 
diflference, which leads to neglect and 
waste, is the worst fault that a member 
of the Nature-Man partnership can be 
guilty of. Neglect nothing that will aid 
growth in any useful form, and happi- 
ness will surely follow, for Nature and 
the God of Nature will "do the rest." 
# # # 

In qualifying for the Nature-Man 
partnership, it is of first importance 
that our personal equipment should be 
understood and cared for so as to give 
us the greatest strength. The body 
may appropriately be likened to an 
electric power plant — a Mind-Power 
Plant; the body being the engine, the 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 243 

stomach the furnace, the arteries and 
veins the boiler tubes, the blood in 
circulation the steam, the brain the 
dynamo, and the mind electricity. 

Mind is the all-important factor of 
our equipment, for it is the commander 
that will lead and direct better and 
wiser than we can now imagine if we 
allow it a chance to act with freedom. 

To secure this freedom we must 
know its habitat, its requirements, its 
nourishment, and learn to allow it to 
recharge itself sufficiently and to con- 
centrate itself on its chosen usefulness 
without imposing upon it also the 
drudgery of useless work. This must 
be done with the same idea of economy 
that a chef is relieved of the drudgery of 
washing dishes and emptying slops. 

According to Dr. Edward Hooker 
Dewey, a pharmacist, army surgeon and 
tireless investigator of forty-five years' 
experience, whose revelations have been 
before the medical profession of the 
world for many years without a single 



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244 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

challenge, the brain is a dynamo which 
accumulates energy during sleep, and 
uses it during the waking hours of its 
possessor. 

The brain manages everything for 
man that he accomplishes. It brings 
messages from the Creator, which are 
sometimes called intuition, sometimes 
inspiration, and by various other names. 
Emerson calls these messages the 
" Over-Soul.*' My own appreciation of 
the attribute that distinguishes the 
Spiritual Man from the animal man 
is better satisfied by the name " Spirit- 
ual Cerebration," which I have defined 
in my book " Happiness " as : " Intelli- 
gence not derived from experience, 
principally obtained during sleep, and, 
seemingly supernaturally clear to con- 
sciousness on awaking in the natural 
manner." 

The brain also directs all action, and, 
with encouragement, will take up the 
messages from the Creator and analyse, 
arrange, and develop them into useful 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 245 

accomplishments, and then file them 
away in the archives of the memory as 
additions to the equipment which is 
necessary to greatness in the pursuit of 
usefulness. 

Dr. Dewey gives the bill of fare of 
the brain in seeking its own nourish- 
ment, and also describes the work it 
performs in transforming the fuel we 
supply it with into the tissues on which 
it feeds. 

This is undoubtedly a very impor* 
tant discovery and locates the source of 
strength and teaches how to conserve it. 

I will not give the technical bill of 
fare of the brain, for you would not 
remember it better than I do, but it is 
all composed of tissues of the body, fat 
predominating to the quantity of ninety- 
seven per cent, but the important an- 
nouncement is that neither the brain 
itself nor any of the nervous centres 
diminish during consumption of tissue, 
neither do they lose any of their power, 
even in cases of what is called starva* 



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246 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

tion, up to the point of death, when all 
of the fatty and muscular tissues of the 
body are wasted away, leaving the brain 
and nerve centres to flicker and go out, 
as a candle does, brighter than usual 
with the parting flash of their brilliancy. 

Dr. Dewey gives President Garfield 
as an illustrious example of proof of the 
accuracy of his deduction. The martyr 
President lived eighty days without the 
addition of an ounce of nutriment to his 
life, carried the usual clearness of mind 
to the last moment, and passed on only 
when the last muscular tissue had been 
consumed by the brain. 

Dr. Dewey's assertion that starvation, 
so-called, is never a cause of disease, and 
never dangerous to life and health until 
there is no more tissue left on which to 
feed the brain and other nerve centres, 
was published some years ago and I have 
the authority of the Doctor himself that 
his contention has not been once dis- 
puted by the medical profession. Three 
eminent English physicians, Drs. A. M. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 247 

Haig, George S. Keith and A. Rabigli- 
ati, and many American physicians, have 
experimented with what is called starva- 
tion for the cure of chronic diseases 
which have their origin in excess of in- 
harmonious deposits caused by over- 
eating or careless eating. The results 
in all instances recorded have been 
successful in modifying or curing the 
disease. 

When patients have understood that 
they were suffering no injury from not 
taking food they have ceased to have 
hunger cravings. These hunger crav- 
ings usually come from fear or from dis- 
order caused by fermenting food in an 
overloaded stomach. 

We can, then, on undisputed and 
practical authority, treat craving for 
food or drink as a disease and therefore 
not rational, and starvation as merely 
drawing upon the stored fuel — fatty 
tissue — by the dynamo of the brain, 
restorable at will at any time before 
complete exhaustion, without injury — 



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248 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

with benefit, in fact — to the machinery 
of the body. 

The brain must first turn food into 
tissue, and then derive its own nourish- 
ment from the tissue. If the right 
quantity of nourishment can be intro- 
duced into the stomach, if the quality is 
of the right kind, and if it is fed into 
the furnace of the stomach with rela- 
tively the same wisdom that a compe- 
tent fireman uses in feeding his furnace, 
the brain is required to use the least 
possible effort in this direction, and has 
its stored energy available for directing 
other useful action and serving the part- 
nership which employs it with an effi- 
ciency, the possibility of which may be 
well illustrated by the herculean accom- 
plishments of the battleship " Oregon " 
in the late war in steaming thirteen 
thousand miles and engaging in a great 
battle without a stop or an accident, and 
without " starting " a rivet. 

I will not tell you much of what Dr. 
Dewey has revealed, because I want you 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 249 

to read all he has written/ as well as the 
books of the English physicians men- 
tioned, but I must say this much : Very 
little digestion goes on during sleep, 
and, whether it does or not the brain 
has from sixty to one hundred days' 
nourishment stored up within each of 
us, and can feed on that without incon- 
venience to us, except in the form of 
what is called habit craving or imagi- 
nary hunger, for the whole of that time. 
A person who has been without food 
for an unusual time, if he does not 
gorge his stomach when the first oppor- 
tunity of breaking the fast arrives, is not 
only better for the rest the brain has 
had, but the health does not suffer in 
any way. 

It is, then, no serious deprivation to 
ask a person to go without what we call 
breakfast — the getting-up or habit-crav- 
ing — and give the brain a chance to 

* Dr. Dewey is the author of numerous books: 
notably, the " No-Breakfast Plan " which he supplies 
to inquirers direct from his home address, Meadville, 
Pa. 



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250 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

clean up the remnants of the last day's 
supply of food fuel, and express new 
desires in an earned appetite. There is 
available, on waking from sleep, a fresh 
charged brain ready to serve its pro- 
prietor with great efficiency. Inciden- 
tally it has to do some "chores," rake 
out the clinkers, dispose of the ashes, 
relieve the grate bars, attend to any 
little repairs, brush out the chimney and 
generally get ready for the work of 
another day. 

The hunger of the morning is neces- 
sarily but a habit'hunger. The best 
evidence of this is that, when busily 
employed, we forget it without trouble ; 
and also is that European peoples, 
where the disease dyspepsia is not 
known in the list of physical derange- 
ments, perform the chief physical or 
mental effort of the day before their 
breakfast, the morning coffee scarcely 
meaning anything in the way of what 
we call a meal. 

Dr. Dewey's firm assertion is that 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 25 1 

when the stomach has had a chance to 
"clean up" and is ready for more fuel, 
it will make it known in healthy man- 
ner by a healthy appetite, and that it is 
rarely normal before noon; and not 
really before one has done what might 
be called a "day's work." 

I can assert boldly, as the result of 
experience, that the time to get work 
out of the brain is between the morning 
awakening and the first meal, and it is 
the same relative to endurance draughts 
on the physical strength. 

Then, in the heat or the glare of the 
day, having accomplished something 
useful and disposed of pressing duties, 
so as not to feel the irritation of hurry, 
the first meal of the day can be taken 
with restful ease and it will be found 
that the supply demanded by the 
appetite will not be so great as that 
demanded by the unhealthful, habit- 
inflamed early morning call. 

It may not seem so, but this digres- 
sion from psychics to physics is very 



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252 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

germane to my subject and to my own 
experience. 

Without knowing that Dr. Dewey 
and the other eminent physicians who 
endorse his theories were living in the 
world, I, in the summer of 1894, blun- 
dered into a personal experience of diet 
that produced wonderful results which I 
now recall with all the vividness of the 
high lights of extreme pleasure met in 
foreign travel 

I was in a Southern city for two 
months during an unusually hot sum- 
mer, watching some developments that 
could not be hurried, and the fruition 
of which was important to my interests. 
I had nothing to do in connection with 
this business but to " watch and wait." 

I had some writing to do, however, 
in the mean time, which could not be 
well or comfortably done in the heat of 
the day, hence I arose at daylight and 
began to write. At that time of the 
morning nothing to eat was to be had, 
which compelled me to start work 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 253 

Without it. My subject was an absorb- 
ing one, so that, once under way, I 
would not be diverted until I had " writ- 
ten myself out;" or in other words, had 
exhausted the consideration of the 
morning messages which I now desig- 
nate "Spiritual Cerebration." 

It happened, under these circum- 
stances, that my habit-hunger was not 
given a hearing and it was nearly noon 
before I felt the fatigue or even the heat 
of the burning day, for I worked in my 
pajamas, and had no time to look at 
the thermometer, to get an exaggerated 
suggestion of heat by which to start 
my blood chasing itself through my 
veins. 

I not only noticed that my mid-day 
breakfast was a deliciously grateful meal, 
but that appetite became satisfied far 
short of the formally customary abnor- 
mal early morning gorge, and, what was 
more remarkable yet, I wanted nothing 
during the rest of the day, and not even 
until midnight, except, after vigorous 



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254 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

exercise of some sort, I might desire a 
little fruit or a bit of bread or cracker; 
but never a full course dinner. 

I wore a belt at my trousers, as was 
the custom of the place, and in a few 
days decreased the girth of my corpu- 
lency one hole in the belt ; and before 
the summer was over, four holes, with 
only the most comfortable feeling ac- 
companying the loss of weight. 

When my family returned fronl 
Europe, I settled back into the Ameri- 
can and English habit of a meat break- 
fast, because I did not want to be 
** different," and at the same time I half 
doubted but that my experience was 
nothing more than an abnormal one, 
attributable to the inertia of summer 
heat, literary absorption and lack of 
physical exercise. 

Twice, when I have been left alone 
since then, away from the restraint of 
custom, and also in the midst of abun- 
dant athletic exercise, I have again cul- 
tivated the same habit of missing 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 255 

breakfast through desire to do early 
morning work, with the same splendid 
results. 

The last time referred to is the pres- 
ent My search for a lost waif through 
the framing of an appeal for him, has 
given me such absorbing thought that 
meals have been of no consideration 
beside it, and in the midst of it I find 
Dr. Dewey's book, the books of the 
English physicians indorsing him; and 
have secured results of health, comfort 
and strength to myself which I did not 
know I possessed; to corroborate my 
accidental experience. As I said before, 
this seems a very wide digression from 
the psychical to the physical, but it is 
really no digression at all, for it is in the 
service of the brain, and the brain is the 
direct agent of communication between 
the Creator and our consciousness, as- 
sisting us to work together in the 
Nature-Man partnership with useful 
efficiency. 



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256 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

Now, let me return to the aim of my 
address, and pursue the thread of my per- 
sonal experience in search of the funda- 
mental principles of True Living, which, 
to be proven, must be vouched for and 
tested by resultant happiness. 

When I attacked the tap-roots of 
trouble and shut the door in the face of 
anger and worry for ever, I saw among 
the bones of their decomposition the 
skeleton of fear. It proved to be their 
backbone. Fear, then, was the support 
of all the deterrent passions that beset 
brightest manhood and womanhood and 
pursue it to an untimely death. 

My book " Happiness " deals with the 
separation of fear-thought from fore- 
thought in order to show that it is pos- 
sible to smother a vital stimulant of 
energy with a resemblance of it which is 
as deadly a poison as carbonic acid gas. 

While I have been engaged in pursu- 
ing germs of disorder to their begin- 
nings, during the past three or four 
years, I hav^ uncovered many a beauti- 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 257 

ful possession that formerly I did not 
appreciate. Appreciation of the full 
value of Appreciation is one of these 
discoveries of priceless value and useful- 
ness. I have spoken of this in ** Happi- 
ness,'* but not as much as it deserves, 
for it truly is " The Appreciation of God 
and of Good that gives birth to Love, 
and which is the only true and adequate 
measure of wealth." 

Nothing else, however, in the whole 
quest, has approached the beauty of the 
love for children that has come to me ; 
the appreciation of them as Messages 
from the Creator, consigned to the cul- 
tivation of the environment society pro- 
vides for them ; as likely as not, any 
one of them bringing into the world a 
great intelligence by means of the hum- 
blest of parents. 

During observation of social ques- 
tions in Europe, my interest has been 
drawn constantly to children, as by a 
powerful magnet, so that when I was 
called back to this country to attend to 

X7 



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258 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

a detail of business and met the adven- 
ture which is the cause of my present 
focalised interest in neglected ones, as 
expressed in a book to be called, when 
published, " That Last Waif ; or, Social 
Quarantine," ^ it was but natural that I 
should put all the force of my sympathy 
into the cause of rescue, and that I 
should find in that service more happi- 
ness than in any of the luxurious amuse- 
ments which had claimed me as a 
devotee in times gone by. 

True happiness is the result of con- 
scions usefulness. This I can assert 
with the confidence of knowledge, not 
alone from my own experience, but from 
observation of the great army of kinder- 
gartners and child-savers whom I have 
met in my travels, and especially within 
the past year ; and it is evident that the 
service attaching to protecting little 
neglected angels from the evil sugges- 
tions and the cruel conditions that may 

1 Published, and proceeds dedicated to the cause 
of the waifs, October, 1898. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 259 

make of them, not men, but beasts, is 
one of the avenues of usefulness in which 
these " Angels of the State " meet with 
the smile of the Master, who was the 
first Great Kindergartner ; whose teach- 
ings centred about and dwelt upon the 
care of children as of first consideration, 
and who said, " Suffer Little Children 
to come unto me, and forbid them not, 
for of such is the Kingdom of Heaven." 
Childhood has suffered, manhood has 
suffered, progress has suffered, for lo! 
these ages, the cruel assumption that 
mankind is naturally depraved. In re- 
cent years public conscience has been 
dulled by the anaesthetic that there 
must be a Have-To- Be- Bad Class in all 
communities. This has been formulated 
into the assumption that there is in 
every group of the Heaven-Sent Angels 
of Purity, a full ten per cent that must 
be depraved and unredeemable except 
by the interposition of special dispensar 
tion, which is a direct contradiction of 
all of the observed Laws of Creation to 



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26o THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

which intelligence now subscribes. The 
motto of this assumption is couched in 
this vicious legend: *' The hopelessly sub- 
merged ten per cent stratum of society." 
Half an hour's walk from this hos- 
pitable mansion, on the shore of the 
beautiful Geneva Lake, is a place called 
" Holiday Home." There are now 
housed and thoughtfully cared for at 
the " Home " about one hundred of the 
" Hopelessly Submerged Ten Per Cent 
Stratum of (Chicago's) Society." Dur- 
ing the summer half a thousand of these 
unfortunates will come for two weeks 
each. When we touched at the wharf 
last evening after coming from the con- 
cert given in their interest at Mr. Chal- 
ner's lakeside home, the waifs met us 
with a merry class-yell, and greeted us 
with an intelligence, a buoyancy^ and a 
freedom, born of their holiday, such as 
was not excelled at any of the other 
landings where only the children of rich 
summer residenters were met. We all 
saw these " waifs " and we marvelled at 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 261 

them, for, with the grime of the slum 
washed from their sweet faces, and with 
clean, though sometimes ragged cloth- 
ing, they might have figured in the 
mix-up of " Pinafore," or have starred 
in a dramatic representation of the 
"Prince and the Pauper," with all the 
grace required of princelings. 

They haven't been long from God, 
and they are god-like or not, as we have 
welcomed and protected them, or re- 
buffed or neglected them. 

Let me assure you in the most prac- 
tical way that there are two sides to this 
child question. There is a sentimental 
side, than which there is no other so 
worthy; and there is a practical side, 
than which there is none so profitable. 

The best and most profitable service 
in the whole gamut of useful occupa- 
tions that I know about is in learning 
to know children, and in connection 
with a Quarantine movement which is 
now started, and which aims to not let 
one of these wards of the Christ escape 



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262 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

the best care known to Love and the 
Science of Child- Life. 

The creche and the kindergarten and 
the manual training schools, and domes- 
tic training classes, as well as institutions 
similar to the " Holiday Home " across 
the Bay, have demonstrated within the 
past thirty years that fully ninety-eight 
per cent of the " Hopelessly Submerged 
Ten Per Cent" can be rescued after 
they have been warped by evil surround- 
ings. What will not the same effort 
effect if directed toward prevention and 
protection, instead of being squandered 
in careless and soulless correction ? 

Christ said : " And a little child shall 
lead them." Let us awake to the call. 
It is the way to Heaven ; for, " Of suck 
is the Kingdom of Heaven." 

FIVE years' confirmatory EVIDENCE 

The spirit of the preceding address 
to the good members of the Unity 
League organisation on the shores of 
beautiful Lake Geneva has been the in- 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 263 

spiring motive of the quest for scientific 
endorsement of Economic Nutrition for 
the benefit of the present generation of 
children, and, incidentally, of their elders. 
In Economic Nutrition lies protection 
from sexual morbidity, alcoholic intem- 
perance, bodily disease, savage passions 
and all the brood of evil contamination 
and temptation. In Economic Nutrition 
lie possibilities of physical and mental 
energy and optimistic happiness such 
as the world has not been accustomed 
to in the memory of history. Eco- 
nomic Nutrition is what children want 
to be taught with their first indelible 
impressions, and the present great move- 
ment of which this little book treats, 
for which it was first responsible, and 
for which it is republished in a new 
and extended edition, is expected to fur- 
nish authoritative knowledge relative to 
the most Economic Nutrition, so that 
mothers and kindergartners may meet 
the little waifs from the Creator on the 
threshold of this present life with words 



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264 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

of wisdom and examples of sanitary per- 
fection, instead of confronting them at 
once with the poison of ignorance rela- 
tive to their most important concern, 
— their own Economic Nutrition. 

That the contentions uttered in " That 
Last Waif; or, Social Quarantine," re- 
ferred to in the Lake Geneva Address, are 
reasonable is evidenced by the experience 
of Dr. and Mrs. Kellogg and their adopted 
family of twenty-four waifs, the acquaint- 
ance of which has since been made. 

All of the altruists who have engaged 
in kindergardenry among the neglected. 
Dr. Barnardo, Dr. Kellogg and the rest, 
are full of confidence in the possibility 
and efficacy of a perfect quarantine as 
outlined in *' That Last Waif." It is an 
Epicurean method of promoting Men- 
ticulture, killing Fearthought, denounc- 
ing Gluttony^ saving that Last Waif, 
and attaining Happiness through learn- 
ing the A.B.-Z. of Our Own {Economic) 
Nutrition. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 265 
GIVE THE BABIES A CHANCE 

THE INSPIRING MOTIVE 

The enthusiasm excited by a per- 
sistent study of the problem of human 
nutrition is inspired by the need of an 
intelligent scheme of information and 
instruction which may be understood 
by mothers and teachers for the benefit 
of children. Unlike the young of the 
lower animals, the babes of mankind 
have some years of dependent existence 
during which much unconscious murder 
is committed, and during which the inno- 
cents are more or less poisoned with bad 
suggestions that weaken them all through 
life, Colts, calves, pigs, chickens, and 
the like survive the period of dependence 
in much greater proportion than do the 
young of their human masters survive 
the infantile stage of existence, and this 
is largely due to the lack of basic or 



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266 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

parent knowledge on the part of mothers 
relative to their own nutrition, and also 
a pitiable ignorance concerning the nu- 
trition of their children, the double igno- 
rance constituting a double crime. 

Even if careless about ourselves, is 
it not shameful that we do not concen- 
trate efiFort in learning the truth about 
our instinctive means of protection in 
our own alimentation and in classi- 
fying the knowledge in a way that will 
make it available to children, through 
their proper guardians, when they arrive 
in the world " as helpless as a babe " ? 

If knowledge which seems to be pro- 
tective had not been evolved out of 
recent experiment, or if the hope of 
gaining such knowledge had not been 
collected from good authority, the appeal 
might seem futile ; but this is not the 
case. The most intelligent and studious 
investigators are united in the belief 
that the problem can be scientifically 
solved and the confusion of ideas settled 
by concentrated personal and collective 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 267 

study of economic nutrition, through 
observation of the natural requirements, 
and by trial of the care in taking food 
which is necessary to secure the most 
profitable economies. 



ILLUSTRATION 

Here is an illustration, both of the 
present need of better knowledge and 
the hope of its attainment. It is an 
account of one accidental experience 
which showed that excess of food may 
be as detrimental to a tiny baby depend- 
ant, as it is generally conceded to be 
harmful to grown persons. The case 
was described by Dr. Chadwick of Bos- 
ton to Professor Bowditch, and by the 
latter repeated to the author. An in- 
fant was not progressing as it should 
and failed to gain normally in weight. 
It was under the charge of a nurse 
and was being carefully watched. A 
certain quantity of milk was prescribed 
for daily nourishment, at prescribed 



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268 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

times, in a prescribed manner ; but the 
child did not increase in weight and 
was "doing poorly." For some reason 
the nurse was changed and instructions 
were repeated by the old to the new 
nurse. In the course of a week the 
little patient showed signs of marked 
improvement, both in gain of weight 
and in general condition. In order to 
record the particulars of the change 
the physician questioned the nurse and 
learned that only one half the nourish- 
ment originally prescribed had been 
given, the new nurse having forgotten 
or misunderstood the orders. 

The reason the little fellow had been 
"doing so poorly" under the original 
prescription was because he had been 
using up his puny strength getting rid 
of the excess of food that had been 
forced upon his little stomach and in- 
testines. When the excess was stopped, 
so that his digestive apparatus could 
occupy itself with his real needs, the 
babe had a surplus of energy for growth 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 269 

and thrived as a rightly nourished child 
should do. 

Note : In connection with the foregoing, reference 
is invited to the author^s conception of how attention 
to one's personal economies, beginning with the econ- 
omy of personal nutrition, is interrelated to general 
menticulture and the child-saving phase of our personal 
responsibility in child culture. Even if we are care- 
lessly suicidal ourselves, we owe better care to inno- 
cent and dependent children. This will be found in 
the '' Explanation of the A. B. C. Life Series " at the 
end of the book. 



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270 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 



MUNCHING PARTIES AND 
THE CHEWING FAD 

To the scientific person of ultra con- 
servative bent of mind this free and 
easy screed, offered as the exponent of 
a great economic idea, will seem offen- 
sive, and justly so; but it has been 
written with a purpose, and happily the 
purpose is being effected as speedily 
as the author hoped for when his own 
discovery relative to the profitableness 
of an epicurean, economic nutrition be- 
came a reality of experience and sug- 
gested publication. 

To this free presentation, couched 
in a variety of class expression, is due, 
in a large measure, the new revival of 
feeding reform which has spread far 
over the civilised world, where it was 
most needed, within the past five years. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 271 

Up to five years ago, and to some 
extent now, the prescription method of 
recommending diets was and is com- 
mon. In fact it was universal up to a 
few years ago; for no one, as far as is 
known, had yet suggested that normal 
appetite was the only competent pre- 
scriber, and that it was the office of 
the physician to teach his clients and 
patients how to normalise the appetite. 

It required two years of the circula- 
tion of the original publications and 
the constant, persistent, personal asser- 
tion of the author before any continued 
credence of his assertions was secured, 
with the one exception of a lay friend 
in New York who happened to be in 
a state of great need of reform at the 
time, as related under the heading of 
"A Five Year's Lay Experience." 

It was only about two years ago that 
the new claims had received sufficient 
recognition to admit of explaining them 
to busy men of prominence in the medi- 
cal profession. After the confirmation 



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272 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

at the laboratories of the University of 
Cambridge, England, the author had 
an opportunity to make a statement and 
give a demonstration to Sir Thomas 
Barlow, the private physician of King 
Edward VII. Sir Thomas was most 
sympathetic with the physiological pos- 
sibilities, and there has been frequent 
evidence since to show that he pursued 
thought of the suggestions, and that his 
interest has been responsible for the 
aristocratic lay interest which originated 
the so-termed ** Munching Parties " in 
London. 

The English term "munching," sig- 
nifying chewing or masticating, is an 
excellent amendment, which is gladly 
adopted. " Masticating " is technical 
and formal. " Chewing " has been dis- 
graced by its application to gum and to 
tobacco, and the other English expres- 
sion, " biting," suggests the carnivorous, 
savage use of the jaws and teeth, while 
"munching" implies enjoyment, as the 
munching of delicacies by children. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 273 

As reported from London, "Munch- 
ing Parties " were inaugurated to teach 
attention, to encourage mouth prepara- 
tion of food for digestion, and also for 
the aesthetic purpose of gaining all the 
gustatory pleasure possible from food 
while conserving the economies of nu- 
trition. The method employed was 
most ingenious, and with some modifica- 
tion is approved by the author. When 
a course was served at "Munching 
Lunches," the manager of the ceremony 
employed a stop watch to time the 
treatment of the first morsel of food 
taken by each of the guests. Five 
minutes was prescribed for considera- 
tion of the morsel. It was an extrava- 
gantly long delay over any one morsel, 
but it set the pace of deliberation, and 
time, under the circumstances of a social 
function, was not a matter of moment. 

A five minute, or even a one minute 

consideration of a morsel of delicious 

food, tends to give a new appreciation 

of its taste value and suggests more 
18 



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274 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

careful enjoyment than is usual when 
nervous conversation is the main busi- 
ness of a meal and food is a mere 
accompaniment. 

Industrious munching performs about 
one hundred acts of mastication to the 
minute, and from twelve to fifteen mouth- 
fuls of ordinary food is sufficient to 
satisfy completely a hearty appetite. 
Tender or well-prepared or well-cooked 
food is fully treated by munching for 
natural swallowing in even much less 
time than a minute. The necessary 
time ranges from one-twentieth to one- 
fifth of a minute, or ordinary food is 
reduced so as to excite the natural Swal- 
lowing Impulse by from five to twenty 
masticatory acts ; and this applies equally 
to the tasting movements required by 
sapid liquids. Hard or coarse breads, 
and even potato, may require more at- 
tention and longer time, and deficiency 
of saliva delays the process; but it is 
a very refractory food that will require 
more than half a minute to the ordinary 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 275 

mouthful. Small sips and small mouth- 
fuls demand less proportionate time, so 
that the actual time necessary to satisfy 
a good appetite does not exceed twelve 
or fifteen or at most twenty minutes 
when the secretion of saliva is ample, 
as in the case of real hunger; but the 
enjoyment of taste does not stop short 
with the actual cessation of the psy- 
chological sensation. The memory of 
taste continues after the actual sensi- 
bility has ceased, and one of the most 
agreeable compensations of a meal is 
enjoyed in the form of complete satisfac- 
tion following the act of eating. It is 
a very different and a very much more 
agreeable sensation than that attending 
a distended stomach, and must be felt 
and understood to be fully appreciated. 
" Munching Party Functions," then, 
reveal more possible pleasure and bene- 
fit than the mere tickling of the palate, 
so-called, and diffuse their benefits to 
cover the mechanical act and a long- 
continued feeling of satisfaction that 



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276 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

IS more subtly pleasing than the im- 
mediate physiological cause of the 
contentment 

The "Munching Party" scheme of 
education and enjoyment has been car- 
ried to America, and has received the 
name of the " Chewing Fad," As such 
it has been cartooned in the news- 
papers, but in no matter what form the 
suggestion is spread it can do only 
good. 

Appreciation of the suggestion has 
been generously expressed in the let- 
ters of Dr. Kellogg of the great Battle 
Creek Sanitarium and by Dr. Dewey, 
the author of the " No Breakfast Plan," 
as well as by the author's intimate col- 
leagues, Drs. Van Someren and Hig- 
gins, of Venice, Italy. 

There are many physicians from 
whom the author has heard report, and 
perhaps thousands who have not yet 
been heard from, who are conveying 
the slow-eating and appreciative-atten- 
tion suggestions to their patients; and 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 277 

as the reform in dietetic technique has 
sprung up since the publication of the 
booklets of the author — " What Sense ? 
or, Economic Nutrition," and "Na- 
tures Food Filter ; or. What and When 
to Swallow," which were afterwards 
coupled together under the title of 
"Glutton or Epicure" — he has good 
reason to suppose that the spread of 
the idea originated with the publica- 
tion of his discovery even where the 
personal influence had not been given 
direct 

While visiting recently in Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, the author met 
a distinguished professor of Harvard 
University who had been suffering from 
nervous prostration. He had spent 
some time in Europe consulting the 
most eminent neurologists, but with lit- 
tle or no relief. On his return to the 
United States he was advised to go to 
a sanitarium in Bethel, Me., under the 
direction of Dr. Gehring, where effective 
cures of cases of nervous prostration 



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278 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

have been performed. The professor 
was given " Menticulture " and " Glut- 
ton or Epicure " to read, and was rec- 
ommended to practise the advice of 
the books in connection with his treat- 
ment. These two books are an account 
of the way the author promoted his 
own salvation from the uncertainty rel- 
ative to physical health and mental 
control, and it is by these means that 
the psychic, mechanical, and chemical 
necessities of nutrition are satisfied. 

The author spent an hour with 
Dr. Alexander Haig, of London, while 
undergoing the Cambridge Univer- 
sity Examination reported upon by Sir 
Michael Foster, and exhaustively argued 
the claims of thorough' mouth treat- 
ment of nutriment to that distinguished 
dietetic specialist. The argument met 
with much incredulity, as has been the 
case in all first presentations of the 
idea. Dr. Haig pronounced the appeal 
to even a normalised appetite dan- 
gerous, and clung to the prescription 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 279 

theory of regulating food. He seems, 
however, to have since learned the 
efficacy of munching and tasting in 
assisting the empirical prescription 
method, and now recommends it as en- 
thusiastically as do Drs. Van Someren, 
Higgins, Kellogg, and Dewey. He has 
even sent patients to a resort in the 
country in England to acquire the 
habit of munching where there was 
present in them the strong pernicious 
habit of nervous haste and inattention 
in connection with their ingestion of 
food. 

This is bound to be the case with 
physicians where the subject is given 
attention and the method is accorded 
a fair trial without lapses. Credit for 
the origination of the suggestion is 
here taken to increase the effectiveness 
of the claims presented in the " A. B.-Z. 
of Our Own Nutrition " and in this 
book. Readers are recommended not 
to imitate the prevalent error of think- 
ing that so simple a suggestion is not 



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28o THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

important or otherwise scientists would 
have proclaimed it long before now. 
The ancient hypotheses of text-book 
physiology were mainly based upon the 
study of nutrition, beginning in the 
stomach, and after the danger of indi- 
gestion had been forced upon the ali- 
mentary system ; and hence they often 
dealt with confused, abnormal, and path- 
ologic conditions, and they rarely had 
opportunity to observe the normal con- 
dition intended by Nature. 

Professor Pawlow, of St Petersburg, 
confirmed the necessity of a right psy- 
chic environment; Dr. Cannon, of the 
Harvard Medical School, showed the 
influence of mechanical thoroughness 
and nervous shock upon digestion ; and 
Dr. Harry Campbell, of London, ex- 
plained the mechanical and salival effi- 
cacy of mastication in procuring good 
assimilation of nutriment and an eco- 
nomic nutrition. The work of Pro- 
fessor Pawlow and Dr. Cannon was 
independent scientific research, and so 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 28 J 

was that of Dr. Campbell; but the 
latter was undoubtedly suggested or 
stimulated by Dr. Van Someren's pre- 
sentment of his paper to the British 
Medical Association. The investiga- 
tions of Sir Michael Foster, Professor 
Chittenden, Drs. Higgins, Kellogg, and 
Dewey were directly inspired by the 
author in connection with his Venetian 
colleague. Dr. Ernest Van Someren. 
The papers, reports, articles, and lec- 
tures of these authorities are given in 
the "A. B.-Z. of Our Own Nutrition," 
and are repeatedly mentioned in this 
volume because this book is revised and 
reissued as an extended explanatory 
companion of the larger scientific pre- 
sentation. 

In pursuit of true menticulture the 
personality of the individual should be^ 
completely suppressed. He becomes 
the agent of his inspirations, his reve- 
lations, or his altruistic convictions, and 
as such speaks for the ideas presented, 
and in no immodest spirit of vain ego- 



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282 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

tism. In descending from the plane of 
high literary propriety to impress by 
simile and analogy, the object foremost 
in mind is to attract a variety of sym- 
pathies. The author reveres the dig- 
nified in art and in demeanour, and 
deplores the necessity of personal asso- 
ciation to spread the merits of what he 
believes to be fundamental truths of 
the philosophy of true living. But so 
strong is the conviction of the author 
that he possesses fundamental truths 
which have been overlooked in the 
rapid progress of the race in the lux- 
uries of living, that where it is seem- 
ingly desirable to employ unusual 
means to attract attention he feels 
compelled to do so. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 283 



SPECIMEN ECONOMIC DINNER 

IN A 

SUMPTUOUS MODERN AMERICAN 
HOTEL 

The author was invited to dine with 
some friends one evening in summer at 
a hotel in New York, and the invitation 
concluded with " Menu a la Fletcher." 

The dinner was to be served in the 
sitting-room of my host, and when I ar- 
rived had not yet been ordered. " You 
must order the dinner for us," said my 
host, " and we will agree to your selec- 
tion." " But I cannot order for any one 
but myself," said I in reply. " The 
chief contention I make for natural 
nutrition is that the appetite is the only 
true indication of the bodily need, and 
you must interpret your own appetite 
both as to estimated quantity required 
and the sort of food craved." 



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284 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

After some discussion I agreed to 
stand as go-between and take the symp- 
toms of appetite from each and give the 
order. The waiter was standing by with 
pencil in hand and urged a number of 
expensive dishes that were the special- 
ties of the day. I asked him to "be 
quiet, please, and let us make our own 
selection." I first placed the bill of fare 
in the hands of the daughter of my host 
and asked her to name the first thing 
that came into her mind in connection 
with the order. She replied, " Baked po- 
tatoes and — " " Stop," said I ; " baked 
potatoes it is; now it is your turn to 

choose, R . What comes first to 

your mind?" "Green corn," was the 
answer. " Very well, waiter ; one order 
of baked potatoes, one order of green 
corn, and a lemon ice. Bring these and 
we will order more if we require." 

The waiter hesitated and was about 
to protest something when I stopped 
him with the assurance that the order 
given was all that we would specify at 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 285 

first, and that if the service was unusual 
and caused trouble we would submit 
to an extra service charge to square 
accounts. 

While the order was being filled 
there was considerable funmaking, but 
I would give no explanations. The 
waiter returned shortly with the order 
as given, and it was laid out to the 
accompaniment of a complete dinner 
utensil service. I asked the young lady 
to please prepare one of the potatoes in 
the way she liked best, and this was 
done by taking the mealy heart out of 
the jacket and mixing it with butter, 
salt, and pepper to taste. In the mean- 
time the father had taken an ear of corn 
and was prepared to enjoy it in response 
to his appetite the same as he would if 
he were in the woods with a lumber- 
man's appetite and only corn to be had. 
The large glass of lemon ice was then 
placed between us as a " centrepiece." 
"Aren't you going to take your ice 
now ? " queried the young lady. " Not 



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286 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

now," replied I. " I must attend to your 
method of taking your potato to see that 
you do it economic justice, and I must 
see that your father does not ' waste any 
of that delicious corn. Now, Mary, 
let me see how much good you can 
munch out of your first mouthful. Do 
not swallow any of it until it is actually 
sucked up by the Swallowing Impulse, 
and when that happens you will note 
that only a portion of it is taken and 
the rest will naturally return to the 
front of the mouth, if you do not re- 
strain it, and will still be a delicious 
liquid most agreeable to taste." This 
happened as suggested, and there were 
three distinct swallowing acts before the 
last of the mouthful had disappeared 
in response to the Swallowing Impulse. 
•' My ! but I never realised that potato 
was so good," exclaimed the young 
lady; and "Gracious! isn't this corn 
bully!" echoed the father. "Good!" 
added I. "If that is true of the first 
mouthful, I think you will find it true of 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 287 

the other mou'thfuls until your appetite 
for potato and corn is satisfied; and 
as long as your appetites hold good for 
them, you are being nourished as your 
body-needs require." With the slow 
eating, the appetite of each for the 
chosen food was soon quieted ; one, we 
will say for illustration of the principle, 
with a single potato and the other with 
a single ear of corn. " I think I should 
relish a little of your second potato if 
you are not going to take it," said the 
father, addressing his daughter; and she 
replied, " Your corn seems nice, father ; 
may I have your second ear in exchange 
for my potato ? " This was agreeable to 
each, and each partook somewhat of 
the other's original selection until the 
appetite of each was so completely satis- 
fied that neither could more than taste 
a little of my lemon ice as a final deli- 
cacy; and as I did not want all of it, 
the one order sufficed for us. I had 
breakfasted quite heartily at one o'clock 
in the afternoon, after having written 



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288 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

several thousand words of correspond- 
ence, and really wanted but half the 
generous portion of ice that had been 
brought. I had ordered it set into ice- 
water, after placing it ceremonially as a 
centrepiece, and it had kept its icy con- 
sistency waiting for what I thought was 
likely to happen. 

Both my host and my hostess de- 
clared that they had never enjoyed a 
summer evening meal more, and yet 
all that was ordered was not consumed, 
while the cost, for the three, was less 
than a dollar for the food alone. 

The method employed to interpret 
appetite was a revelation to my friends. 
They were accustomed to ordering sev- 
eral courses for each person, although 
they thought they were "small eat- 
ers " and economic feeders. Had they 
ordered for us three without my assist- 
ance, the dinner would not have cost 
less than four or five dollars, and with 
a plethora of food on the table all 
would have felt it necessary to eat as 



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THE NEW OLUTTON OR EPICURE 289 

much as possible, in order to get value 
received. 

The above, as related, was an actual 
happening, but it in no way indicates 
what another trio would have ordered 
in response to their appetites. That is 
immaterial. The principle of consult- 
ing the leanings of appetite is the thing 
of first importance, and giving appetite 
a chance to naturally discriminate is 
the second natural requirement. Had 
the weather been cooler, and had the 
appetite earned been like that of a 
labouring man, more food and more 
variety might have been required to 
satisfy appetite, and hence the needs 
of the body. In that case, after plying 
the appetite to repletion on the first 
dish ordered, a second or a third could 
easily have been added. With this 
principle of learning the real demands 
of appetite, any number of combina- 
tions can be had for variety. In sum- 
mer, with light physical exercise, very 
little proteid-bearing food is needed ; but 



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290 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

in winter, with vigorous exercise or hard 
physical labour, the appetite will crave 
foods that have proteid and fat whether 
one knows what proteid is or the differ- 
ence between carbohydrate elements and 
fat. Any empirical idea of the pos- 
sible elemental requirements is likely to 
lead to false suggestion and do harm. 
It is difficult to stand by and let Nature 
do the ordering if there is too much 
elemental intelligence, and that is where 
the animals, when allowed free choice 
of food, get on better with their nutri- 
tion than man himself, and man's only 
protection is to carefully heed the deli- 
cate discrimination of appetite. This 
is not a difficult thing to do, for appe- 
tite can be easily satisfied within a 
small range of simple foods. 

With any desired variety of sumptu- 
ous food to choose from, and no re- 
straint from any cause whatever, the 
author fed himself nine-tenths of the 
time during the examination at Yale 
University, in cold winter weather, on 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 29 1 

griddle cakes well buttered and ac- 
companied with an abundance of ma- 
ple syrup. Occasionally more proteid 
would be demanded, — say once a 
week, or once in five days, — and 
then baked beans was the preferential 
choice. 

I am now relating the experiences of 
a student of hygienic epicureanism and 
am not considering money economy 
alone. Were mental or even physical 
improvement in efKciency to be pur- 
chased at high prices, and lack of effi- 
ciency could be had for nothing, the 
high-priced article would be well worth 
its cost, no matter what it might be, for 
the reason that total lack of efficiency 
is equivalent to death and any propor- 
tionate lack is the next thing to death. 
Hence it is not a money economic re- 
form that is being advocated, and this 
must be borne in mind. 

When I am in New York I very often 
take a room at the Waldorf-Astoria be- 
cause it has become, by common con- 



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292 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

sent, the suburban and country business 
and social clearing house of the whole 
United States ; and hence, coming 
from Europe periodically as I do, and 
always anxious to meet old friends from 
San Francisco, New Orleans, Boston, 
Washington, the great cities of the 
Middle West, or elsewhere, it is more 
easily accomplished by camping at the 
Waldorf than in any other way. I 
cannot be a profitable guest of this or 
any hotel kept on the European plan, 
but I try to make up for this defi- 
ciency in other ways. Just across Sixth 
Avenue from the Waldorf, on Thirty- 
Fourth Street, is one of the most pre- 
tentious of the so-called " dairy lunches." 
In these places good, appetising, whole- 
some food is served quickly and in 
decently small portions. For this very 
reason alone, I prefer the crowd and 
the noise of the dairy lunch to the 
quiet and the luxury of the Waldorf 
caf^ or dining-room. One would not 
object to paying a larger price at the 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 293 

more quiet place of service, but prodi- 
gality seems to be the present great 
American sin. Were it a mere waste 
of money or even of the food, it would 
not be worthy of great discussion; for 
when the fool and his money are parted 
the laugh is on him with no grain of 
sympathy, and there already being a 
great surplus of food in the land, there 
is no fear of famine. But with this 
prodigality prevalent, so that to have a 
decent variety one must have put before 
him enough for a family, the temptation 
to grossly overeat is great and the abuse 
is criminal. 

It is the hope of the author that 
some enterprising Boldt will inaugu- 
rate an epicurean service and charge 
well enough for it to pay for the 
trouble, or better yet, in proportion to 
the quantity wanted. In this regard 
the poor do not suffer directly, but the 
example of the rich is the perverter of 
the poor in many ways, and surely in 
this item of dietetic abuse. 



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294 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

When it comes to quantities of food 
to be prescribed, the author avoids giv- 
ing even suggestions. This has been 
the trouble with the past attempts at 
reform. Had Luigi Cornaro told us in 
his autobiography the manner of taking 
his food with other particulars, instead 
of giving alone a maximum weight to 
which he limited himself, he might have 
saved the world three hundred years of 
uncertainty and confusion. His twelve 
ounces of solid food and fourteen ounces 
of new wine (fresh grape juice) means 
little. The solid food might have been 
almost water free or might have con- 
tained 50 per cent of moisture. The 
new wine contained a trifle of sugar 
and probably more than 95 per cent of 
water and supplied moisture to the body 
instead of water. During the Yale tests 
reported elsewhere, and more fully in the 
"A. B.-Z. of Our Own Nutrition," the 
daily ration did not exceed the reported 
amount of Cornaro, even with the most 
generous allowance for moisture. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 295 

I have steadily refused to prescribe 
by weight or quantity or to suggest the 
best kinds of foods for any one, but 
there are so many questions arising 
from the publicity already given by the 
Yale experiment, that it will do no 
harm to give some outline. 



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296 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 



DIET IN THE 

YALE EXAMINATION OF THE 

AUTHOR 

In the first place the selection of food 
for this test is no basis of general choice. 
The analysis of food for its elemental 
molecule values, and for its heat con- 
tent, is a very difficult thing to do and 
takes much time ; hence to bring a large 
variety into a diet during a test would 
entail enormous labour on the labora- 
tory staflf. Knowing this difficulty, when 
I was requested to choose something 
which would entirely satisfy my sense of 
taste gratification so as to best stimu- 
late the flow of the digestive juices, I 
chose a cereal with a known content 
value. That is to say, I fed from dififer- 
ent brands of cereals, the content value 
of which was known. A quart of fresh 
milk a day furnished the moisture re- 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 297 

quired, and was not every day entirely 
consumed. Maple sugar was the most 
variable ingredient of the diet in regard 
to quantity. Of the milk I took nearly 
or quite one quart each day, of the 
cereal I averaged about 150 grams, or 
say 5 ounces, and the demand for the 
sugar varied from 150 grams to 200 
grams, or say 5-7 ounces. 

This food was taken in at two meals 
daily, — 12-1 and 6-7 p. m., — and the 
time required in taking was 12-14 
minutes to the meal, including any 
delay necessitated in taking notes and 
in weighing the food. These delays 
were inconsiderable, however, as facili- 
ties for weighing and taking notes were 
perfected and their use well accustomed 
by the subject. The 26-28 minutes 
per day, then, may be set down as the 
careful but industrious eating time re- 
quired to satisfy the waste and appetite 
of a riian doing 'Varsity Crew work, as 
reported by Dr. Anderson and Pro- 
fessor Chittenden. 



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298 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

The activity outside the prescribed 
gymnasium exercises and any supple- 
mentary work consisted of awaking very 
early in the morning and doing con- 
siderable writing upon my typewriter. 
The agitation of this nutrition investi- 
gation has involved an immense amount 
of correspondence to keep the interest 
stimulated, and for the exchange of 
information between the interested par- 
ties; hence in addition to serving as 
test-subject, there was always much else 
to do to keep from getting hopelessly 
behind in the work. 

The writing began anywhere from 
four to six in the morning in winter, 
which was the season of the test, and 
continued until about seven or eight, 
when the exercises were commenced 
and continued until finished. Mean- 
time the mail of the morning had come 
in and frequently demanded immediate 
attention, which used up the time until 
between twelve and one o'clock, when 
a first-class appetite had been earned 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 299 

(no craving of hunger or "all-goneness " 
in the common form due to the persist- 
ence of habit hunger), and this insured 
a keen appreciation of taste and fulfilled 
all the requirements of a healthy diges- 
tion. The afternoon was always busy, 
sometimes with a lengthy walk around 
town, or a game of billiards when the 
weather discouraged outside work. The 
evenings were strenuous or restful, and 
were usually employed with conversa- 
tion, reading, or a lecture. 

Fortunately the simple food selected 
continued to be agreeable to the end, 
and cost an average of only eleven cents 
per day. When it was given up to 
accommodate the service furnished by 
social meals it was missed, the habit of 
supply having become somewhat fixed 
and expected by appetite. 

In London, in search of the lowest 
possible economy, the author has sub- 
sisted on about half the cost of the 
Yale supply ; and it is entirely possible 
to those needing strictest economy. 



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300 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 



INFLUENCE OF SUGGESTION 

A friend of the author, who is an 
enthusiast in regard to the profitable- 
ness of an economic nutrition in assist- 
ing the strenuous life, went to lunch 
with a generous host in New York the 
other day, when the following conversa- 
tion about the lunch to be ordered was 
heard. It partook of Wall-Street brev- 
ity, which is thought to be necessary in 
the rush of a mid-day snack or meal. 

" What will you have? What ! only 
a baked potato and a bottle of ginger 
ale ? All right for a starter ; but what 
are you really going to have? Nothing 
more! what is the matter with you? 
Come, now ; tell me what you want for 
lunch? Stocks are badly off, but I 
have n't reached the starvation point yet. 
Don't treat me like that when I 'm trying 
to treat you right and white. Brace up, 
old man, and have something to eat." 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 301 

The intermediate replies can be 
imagined as in an overheard telephone 
conversation. 

The host ordered for himself, as 
usual, a portion of tongue and a gen- 
erous garniture of side dishes, and 
watched his guest with amused toler- 
ance. The lunch proceeded, inter- 
larded with talk about topics of mutual 
interest, and when a final halt was 
called the host had not taken more 
than one-quarter of his cold tongue and 
very sparingly of the accompanying 
side dishes. The guest had finished 
one of his baked potatoes, and had 
sipped his ginger ale enjoyingly, but 
had not taken more than half of the 
pint ordered. The appetites of both 
host and guest were amply satisfied, 
but without any of the heaviness which 
follows an unrestrained " hearty " meal. 
In tones of surprise the one-sided con- 
versation, relative to the strangeness 
of the proceeding, continued as follows: 
" Well, I '11 be switched I How in Wall 



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302 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

Street did that happen ! I have n't 
eaten half my usual lunch, and yet I 
have killed my appetite deader than 
the Ship Building Trust. I 'm blessed 
if I can understand it. The blamed 
thing is uncanny. I don't believe it's 
true, but I'm satisfied all right even 
if I am hypnotised. Come and lunch 
with me every day. You're engaged 
as a regular companion boarder, and 
Freddie will pay the freight. You're 
cheaper than nobody. Come again! 
Come again ! ! Come always ! ! ! " 

The above is not an unusual case. 
The personal influence of the author 
and of his active colleagues has been 
visibly noted among parties where there 
was no sympathy with the " starving 
fad," and where there was even stub- 
born opposition to the thought of such 
a thing. But these same groups of 
non-interested objectors have visibly 
decreased their accustomed lunches and 
dinners, and some of them have found 
that a cup of coffee and a roll, the 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 303 

same as is habitually taken in Europe, 
outside England, serves as a breakfast 
better than the full meat affair formerly 
taken. They persist in declaring that 
they are not influenced by the chewing 
suggestion, but they show signs of some 
restraining influence, and observation 
reveals that in such groups the common 
annual and quarterly attacks of illness 
are less frequently or less severely 
suffered. 

There is no doubt that Luigi Comaro 
gave appreciative attention to his four 
three-ounce meals a day, and in giving 
attention properly insalivated his food. 
The inference is warranted. A man 
full of vigour and health and con- 
structive energy such as Cornaro 
reports that he had in unusual abun- 
dance is not likely to confront a 
three-ounce ration of delicious food 
and proceed to bolt it as a dog bolts 
a piece of stolen meat. It is a matter 
of easy observation that a child given 
a single piece of sugar or sweet in 



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304 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

any form will make it last as long as 
possible and get all of the taste out 
of it by most ingenious conservation; 
but the same child, if offered a box 
of "goodies" as it is passed around, or 
whenever the time given for possession 
of its contents is limited, will show the 
greed of a predatory or hunted or 
habitually maltreated animal and will 
not only grab as much as possible but 
will cram all possible into his stomach 
to satisfy the sense of greed, and then 
usually suffers the consequences of the 
double sin in the sickening re-taste of 
the gases of indigestion. 

Cornaro undoubtedly made his three- 
ounce meals last as long as possible in 
order to enjoy the maximum of taste, 
and in so doing satisfied the natural 
requirements of appreciative attention 
and thorough insalivation. In like 
manner two small tumblers of the 
fresh grape juice (new wine — fourteen 
ounces), which he took as his sapid 
liquid in the course of a day in con- 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 305 

nection with his four meals, would 
allow only a sherry glass quantity to 
each meal, and with such a limited 
supply a person is not likely to toss 
off the liquid in great gulps as water 
is drunk to satisfy thirst, but it rather 
would be enjoyed as the wine-tasters 
enjoy wine, by their sipping practice, 
in pursuit of their profession. The 
influence of visible supply or of pass- 
ing or permanent opportunity of posses- 
sion is a most powerful suggestion in 
the cultivation of economy or prodigal- 
ity, of greed or moderation, of healthy 
nouriture or plethoric indigestion. 

Man was constructed and intended 
to hunt his food among the grains, 
nuts, roots, and other fruits of earth, 
and in hunting food to earn a keen 
appetite. He found his food scattered 
and ate it as he found it, with the true 
appreciation that difficulty of posses- 
sion gives. In the primitive state the 
requirements of natural digestion are 

safeguarded; but with a plethora of 
20 



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306 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

food cooked and spiced and furnished 
with superfacilities for ingestion, the 
natural protection of difficulty is re- 
moved, and the victims of the luxury 
drop unconsciously into habits of abuse, 
like the overeating of to-day. 

In order to escape the surrounding 
temptations it is necessary to have 
always in mind protective counter-sug- 
gestions which intelligently make use 
of the abundant and easy supply but 
limit the intake to the needs of the 
body as expressed by appetite when 
permitted to discriminate in its natural 
deliberate manner, and which only keeps 
pace with the natural dissipation of 
taste in the process of requisite insali- 
vation. The chewing practice is but 
a means to this natural end, but it is 
a n>ost important means, the same now 
as when teeth were used instead of 
patent grinders, and when taste took 
the place of spices and sauces and 
manufactured its own delights by the 
chemical action of saliva. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 307 

Among the Zuni Indians, observed 
by even recent travellers, it is the cus- 
tom of the young girls of the pueblos to 
masticate wheat up to a given point of 
sweetness of taste and then to withdraw 
it from the mouth and collect it in a 
wooden dish until a sufficient quantity 
is secured, when the jaw-ground and 
saliva-sweetened " mess '* is baked in the 
sun or by fire and becomes the " sweet 
cake " of the family. The change of 
the starch of the wheat or corn into 
sugary dextrose by the action of saliva, 
which is necessary to be done some- 
where in the alimentary canal before 
it is assimilable nutriment, gives the 
sweet-cake quality to the food which 
is the dietary delicacy of these primitive 
people. By proper insalivation we per- 
form the delectable service for ourselves 
instead of having it done for us by 
good young teeth aided by healthy 
saliva furnished by beautiful feminine 
assistance. 



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3o8 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 



"FLETCHERISING" FOOD 

WHAT IT REALLY MEANS 

The term " Fletcherising," or " Fletch- 
erizing," as applied to food has come 
into use without the suggestion of the 
nominee to a new filtering fame, and 
promises to spread; hence it is well to 
explain just what the term means. 

Under the so-called " Fletcherizing " 
process, the mouth becomes a filter 
with most facile appliances for protect- 
ing the delicate alimentary canal from 
straining and poisoning. Instead of the 
" Pasteur Filter " for the purification of 
water and the " pasteurisation " of foods 
by sterilisation, the "Fletcher Filter" 
both separates and prepares whatever 
is given it to treat more perfectly than 
any mechanical or chemical device can 
do. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 309 

Dr. Kellogg appears in evidence often 
in this volume, and also with much ap- 
preciated strength of indorsement in 
the " A. B.-Z. of Our Own Nutrition "; 
but it is because he knows the value of 
the discovery of the natural food filter, 
has enormous chance to test it practi- 
cally, and generously assists the reform 
with the might of his conviction. Hence 
the author has still another letter of his 
in hand from which to quote. 

" Battle Creek, Mich., Oct. 26, 1903. 
"Mr. Horace Fletcher, New York. 

" Dear Friend : — I have yours of 
October 4th. I should have answered it 
before, but have been away from home. 

" I appreciate very much your offer 
to send me a memorandum of the work 
done in Cambridge, also a plan of the 
work at Yale, You have had a most 
interesting experience with eminent 
physiologists, and it has led you deep 
into the question of nutrition. I shall 
appreciate very much suggestions from 



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310 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

you with reference to subjects for ex- 
perimental work, and other suggestions 
which may occur to you respecting the 
methods, etc. I am sure your wide ex- 
perience will be a great help to us. 
The more I test your ideas the more 
confidence I have in them. 

" What you say about the wonder- 
ful effect of mastication is certainly cor- 
rect. I observed it right away as soon 
as I began to practise Fletcherizing. 
By the way, I wrote an article for 
the last number of my journal, good 
HEALTH, about " Fletcheriziug " food, 
and I see our colleagues are already 
taking it up. One of my most able 
associates, Dr. J. A. Read, who has 
charge of our sanitarium in Philadel- 
phia, gave a lecture last Thursday night 
to his patients on " Fletcherizing " food, 
and his audience was greatly interested. 
I am sure you deserve to have your 
name immortalised, as Pasteur's has 
been. I mention " Fletcherizing " in 
almost every lecture I give to our 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 311 

patients. I think most of our patients 
are " Fletcherizing " and are getting 
great good from it, also a large propor- 
tion of our six hundred nurses and 
other employees. 

" Awaiting a letter of suggestions at 
your convenience, I remain, 

" As ever your friend, 
"(Signed) J. H. Kellogg." 

" Fletcherizing " does not consist 
only and merely of careful chewing. 
Careful chewing, with cheerful atten- 
tion, will secure the comminution, in- 
salivation, and all necessary chemical 
preparation for perfect digestion, and 
will separate hard and indigestible mat- 
ter from the food mass put into the 
mouth for treatment; but it is the 
whole environment of the act which 
counts the best results. 

Cheerfulness is as important as chew- 
ing; and if persons cannot be cheerful 
during a meal they had better not eat. 
Not eating will not hurt them in the 



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312 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

least, but lack of cheerfulness will defeat 
the object of the meal by causing more 
or less indigestion; and hence it not 
only does no good to eat when not cheer- 
ful^ but actually does harm. Haste and 
lack of cheerfulness are about the same 
in effect on digestion. You have no 
idea how much real nutriment you can 
get into your system in five minutes if 
you are industrious with your munch- 
ing and are cheerful about it ; so don't 
hurry when you have full ten minutes, 
or perhaps twenty minutes, for taking 
nourishment 

You cannot go faster than Nature 
will let you, and it is profitable to study 
Nature and watch her constantly for 
her proper cue. Don't try to get ahead 
of her or you may sink in mud or into 
deep water. 

Hence the author begs of those who 
heed his suggestions, especially if they 
give them his name, to respect them 
in all their essentials. Don't chew any- 
thing when you are mad or when you 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 313 

are sad, but only when you are glad 
that you are alive and glad that you 
have the appetite of a live person and 
one that is well earned. 

That is as much a part of the 
" Fletcherizing " process as munching, 
and one should never forget it. 

So, please, when you " Fletcherize," 
if you " Fletcherize " at all, do it well 
and completely and do not half do it 
and then condemn the method. The 
method is all right, notwithstanding the 
name which has been attached to it, for 
it is simply Nature's method. 



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Explanation of The A. B. C. 
Life Series 

THE ESSENTIALS AND SEQUENCE IN LIFE 

It would seem a considerable departure 
from the study of menticulture as advised 
in the author's book, "Menticulture," to 
jump at once to an investigation of the 
physiology and psychology of nutrition of 
the body and then over to the department 
of infant and child care and education as 
pursued in the creche and in the kinder- 
garden ; but as a matter of fact, if study 
of the causation of human disabilities and 
misfortunes is attempted at all, the quest 
leads naturally into all the departments of 
human interest, and first into these primary 
departments. 

The object of this statement is to 
link up the different publications of the 
writer into a chain of consistent sugges- 
tions intended to make life a more simple 
[315] 



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Explanation of The A. B. C. Life Series 

and agreeable problem than many of us 
too indifferent or otherwise inefficient and 
bad fellow-citizens make of it. 

It is not an altogether unselfish effort 
on the part of the author of the A. B. C. 
Life Series to publish his findings. In the 
consideration of his own mental and physi- 
cal happiness it is impossible to leave out 
environment, and all the units of humanity 
who inhabit the world are part of his and 
of each other's environment. 

It would be rank presumption for any 
person, even though gifted with the means 
to circulate his suggestions as widely as 
possible, and armed with the power to 
compel the reading of his publications, 
to think that any suggestions of his could 
influence any considerable number of his 
fellow-citizens of the world, or even of his 
own immediate neighbourhood, to accept 
or follow his advice relative to the man- 
agement of their lives and of their com- 
munal and national affairs ; but while the 
general and complete good of humanity 
should be aimed at in all publications, 
one's immediate neighbours and friends 
[316] 



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Eocplanatwn of The A. B. C. Life Series 

come first, and the wave of influence 
spreads according to the effectiveness <rf 
the ideas suggested in doing good; that 
is, in altering the point of view and con- 
duct of people so as to make them a better 
Sympathetic environment. 

For instance, the children of your 
neighbours are likely to be the playmates 
of your own children, and the thildren of 
degenerate parents in the slum district 
of your city will possibly be the fellow- 
citizen partners of your own family. Again, 
when it is known that right or wrong nu- 
trition of the body is the most important 
agent in forming character, in establish- 
ing predisposition to temperance or intem- 
perance of living, including the desire for 
intoxicating stimulants, it is revealed to 
one that right nutrition of the community 
as a whole is an important factor in his 
own environment, as is self-care in the 
case of his own nourishment 

The moment a student of every-day 

philosophy starts the study of problems 

from the A, B. C beginning of things, 

and to shape his study according to an 

[317] 



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Explanation of The A. B. C. Life Series 

A. B. C. sequence, each cause of inhar- 
mony is at once traced back to its first ex- 
pression in himself and then to causes 
influenced by his environments. 

If we find that the largest influences 
for good or bad originate with the right 
or wrong instruction of children during 
the home training or kindergarden period 
of their development, and that a dollar 
expended for education at that time is 
worth more for good than whole bancs 
of courts and whole armies of police to 
correct the effect of bad training and bad 
character later in life, it is quite logical 
to help promote the spread of the kinder- 
garden or the kindergarden idea to include 
all of the children bom into the world, 
and to furnish mothers and kindergarden 
teachers with knowledge relative to the 
right nutrition of their wards which they 
can themselves understand and can teach 
effectively to children. 

If we also find that the influence of the 
kindergarden upon the parents of the in- 
fants is more potent than any other which 
can be brought to bear upon them, we see 
[318] 



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Explanation of The A. B. C. Life Series 

clearly that the way to secure the widest 
reform in the most thorough manner is 
to concentrate attention upon the kinder- 
garden phase of education, advocate its 
extension to include even the last one of 
the children, beginning with the most 
needy first, and extending the care out- 
ward from the centre of worst neglect to 
finally reach the whole. 

Experience in child saving so-called, 
and in child education on the kinder- 
garden principle, has taught the cheapest 
and the most profitable way to insure 
an environment of good neighbours and 
profit-earning citizens ; and investigation 
into the problem of human alimentation 
shows that a knowledge of the elements of 
an economic nutrition is the first essential 
of a family or school training; and also 
that this is most impressive when taught 
during the first ten years of life. 

One cannot completely succeed in the 
study of menticulture from its A. B. C. 
^beginning and in A, B. C. sequence with- 
out appreciation of the interrelation of 
the physical and the mental, the personal 
[319] 



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Explanation of The A. B. C. Life Series 

and the social, in attaining a complete 
mastery of the subject. 

The author of the A. B. C. Life 
Series has pursued his study of the 
philosophy of life in experiences which 
have covered a great variety of occupa^ 
tions in many different parts of the world 
and among peoples of many different 
nations and races. His first book, ** Men- 
ticulture," dealt with purging the mind 
and habits of sundry weaknesses and de- 
terrents which have possession of people 
in general in some degree. He recog- 
nised the depressing effect of anger and 
worry and other phases of fearthought. 
In the book " Happiness," which followed 
next in order y fearthought was shown to be 
the unprofitable element of forethought. 
The influence of environment on each 
individual was revealed as an important 
factor of happiness, or the reverse, by 
means of an accidental encounter with a 
neglected waif in the busy streets of 
Chicago during a period of intense 
national excitement incident to the war 
with Spain, and this led to the publication 
[320] 



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Explanation of The A. B. C. Life Series 

of "That Last Waif; or, Social Quaran- 
tine.'^ During the time that this last 
book was being written, attention to the 
importance (tf right nutrition wi3 invited 
by personal disabilities, smd the experi- 
ments described in " Qutton or Epicure ; 
or, Economic Nutrition ' ' were begun and 
have continued until now* 

In the study of the latter, but most 
important factor in profitable livingi cir- 
cumstances have greatly favoured the 
author, as related in his latest book, 
"The A.R-Z. of Our Own Nutrition." 

The almost phenomenal circulation of 
" Menticulture " for a book of its kind» 
and a somevt^at smaller interest in the 
books on nutrition imd the appeal for 
better care of the wai£s of society, showed 
that most persons wished, like the au- 
thor, to find a short cut to ha^)piness by 
means of indifference to environment, 
both internal and external, while habitu- 
ally sinning against the physiological 
dietetic requirements of Nature. In smoth- 
ering worry and guarding against anger the 
psychic assistance of digestion was stimu- 

21 [ 3ai ] 



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Explanation of The A. B. C. Life Series 

lated and some better results were thereby 
obtained, but not the best attainable 
results. 

Living is easy and life may be made 
constantly happy by beginning right ; and 
the right beginning is none other than 
the careful feeding of the body. This 
done there is an enormous reserve of 
energy, a naturally optimistic train of 
thought, a charitable attitude towards 
everybody, and a loving appreciation of 
everything that God has made. Morbid- 
ity of temperament will disappear from an 
organism that is economically and rightly 
nourished, and death will cease to have 
any terrors for such ; and Bsfear of death 
is the worst depressant known, many of 
the worries of existence take their ever- 
lasting flight from the atmosphere of the 
rightly nourished. 

The wide interest now prevalent in 
the subjects treated in The A. B.C. Life 
Series is evidenced by the scientific, mili- 
tary, and lay activity, in connection with 
the experiments at the Sheffield Scientific 
School of Yale University and elsewhere, 

[ 322 ] 



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Explanation of The A. B. C. Life Series 

as related in the ** A. B.-Z. of Our Own 
Nutrition " and in " The New Glutton or 
Epicure" of the series. 

The general application is more fully 
shown, however, by the indorsement of 
the great Battle Creek Sanitarium, which 
practically studies all phases of the sub- 
ject, from health conservation and child 
saving to general missionary work in 
social reform. 

HORACE FLETCHER. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 3^5 



Instructions Issued by the United 
States Army Medical Department 
FOR the Students of the Army 
Medical Schools 

method of attaining economic assimilation 
OF nutriment and immunity from dis- 
ease, muscular soreness, and fatigue 

l^ Feed only when a distinct appetite has 
been earned. 

2. Masticate all solid food until it is com- 
pletely liquefied and excites in an irresistible 
manner the swallowing reflex or swallowing 
impulse. 

3* Attention to the act of mastication and 
insalivation, and appreciation of the taste 
thereby secured, are necessary, meantime, to 
excite the flow of gastric juice into the 
stomach to meet the food, as demonstrated 
by Pawlow, 

4. Strict attention to these two particulars 
will fulfil the requirements of Nature relative 
to the preparation of the food for digestion 
and assimilation; and this being faithfully 
done, the automatic processes of digestion 
and assimilation will proceed most profitably 
and will result in discarding very littie diges- 
tion-ash (feces) to encumber the intestines 
or to compel excessive draft upon the bodily 
energy for excretion^ 



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326 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

5. The evidence of this economy is ob- 
served in the small amount of excreta and its 
peculiar, inoffensive character, showing escape 
from putrid bacterial digestion such as brings 
indol and skatol into evidence offensively. 

6. When the digestion and assimilation 
has been normally economic the digestion- 
ash should be formed into little balls ranging 
in size from a pea to a so-called Queen Olive, 
according to the food taken, should be quite 
dry, and have only the odour of moist clay or 
a hot biscuit. This inoffensive character re- 
mains indefinitely after excretion until the ash 
completely dries or disintegrates like rotten 
stone or wood. 

7. The weight of the digestive-ash should 
range (moist) from 10 grams a day to not 
more than 40-50 grams a day, according to 
the food ; the latter estimate being based on 
a vegetarian diet and may not call for excre- 
tion for many days (3 to 8); infrequency 
indicating best conditions. The aseptic con- 
dition of the excreta renders retention in the 
intestines quite harmless and gives opportu- 
nity for perfect assimilation of the nutriment. 

8. Fruits may hasten peristalsis, but not 
necessarily, if they are thoroughly treated in 
the mouth as sapid liquids rather than as 
solids, and are insalivated, sipped, tasted, into 
absorption in the same way wine tasters test 
and take wine and tea tasters test tea. The 
latter spit out the tea after tasting, as other- 
wise it vitiates their taste and ruins them for 
their discriminating profession. 



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THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 327 

9. Milk, sotips, wines, beer, and all sapid 
liquids or semi-solids should be treated in 
this manner for the best assimilation and 
digestion as well as for the best gustatory 
results. The care recommended will reduce 
the quantity tolerable by the appetite and 
lead to habits of healthy temperance, but 
secures maximum satisfaction. 

ID. This would seem to entail a great deal 
of care and bother and lead to the waste of 
time. 

11. Such, however, is not the case. To 
restore the natural protective reflexes in the 
beginning does require strict attention and 
persistent care to overcome life-long habits 
of nervous haste, but if the attack is earnest 
the habits of mouth-treatment and appetite 
discrimination soon become fixed and guide 
the deliberation in taking food unconsciously 
to the feeder. 

12. Food of a proteid value of 5-7 grams 
of nitrogen and 1500-2000 k. calories of 
fuel value, paying strict attention to the ap- 
petite for selection and carefully treated in 
the mouth, has been found to be the quantity 
best suited to metabolic economy and effi- 
ciency of both mind and body in sedentary 
pursuits and ordinary business activity; and, 
also, such habits of economy have given prac- 
tical immunity from the common diseases for 
a period extending over more than five years, 
whereas the same subject was formerly sub- 
ject to periodical illness. The same economy 
and immunity have shown themselves consist- 



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328 THE NEW GLUTTON OR EPICURE 

ently in the cases of many test subjects, 
covering periods of three years, and applies 
equally to both sexes, all ages, and other 
idiosyncratic conditions* 

13. The time necessary for satisfying com- 
plete body needs and appetite daily, when the 
habit of attention, appreciation, and delibera- 
tion have been installed, is less than half an 
hour, no matter how divided as to number of 
rations. This necessitates industry of masti- 
cation, to be sure, and will not admit of waste 
of much time between mouthfuls. 

14. Ten minutes will completely satisfy a 
ravenous appetite if all conditions of ingestion 
and preparation are favourable. 

15. Both quantitive and qualitive supply 
of saliva is an important factor iif buccal 
(mouth) preparation of nutriment, but atten- 
tion to these fundamental requirements soon 
regulates the supply of all of the digestive 
juices, and, in connection with the care rec- 
ommended above, insures economy of nutri- 
tion, and, probably, immunity from disease. 

(Signed) HORACE FlETCHEIU 



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flAV2 3 1907 



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I^VU- 




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